Limnonectes paramacrodon (Inger, 1966)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Limnonectes > Species: Limnonectes paramacrodon

Rana paramacrodon Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 228. Holotype: FMNH 76883, by original designation. Type locality: "Sungei Tawan, a small tributary of the Kalabakan River, Tawau District, Sabah", Malaysia (Borneo).

Rana paramacrodon paramacrodonInger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 231–233.

Limnonectes (Limnonectes) paramacrodonDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 63.

English Names

Tawau Wart Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 100).

Peat Swamp Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 116).

Masked Frog (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 151).

Lesser Swamp Frog (Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 54).

Tawau Fanged Frog (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 25). 

Masked Swamp Frog (Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 276).

Lesser Swamp Frog (Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 275).


Extreme southern peninsular Thailand (Narithiwat Province), West Malaysia, Singapore, and western and northern Borneo (Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia); Bunguran and Serasan Is. (Natuna Is.); South Sumatera Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah), Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Singapore, Thailand


See account by Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 83–85, and brief account by Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 35 (as Rana paramacrodon). Singapore record from Lim, 1989, Raffles Bull. Zool., 37: 51–57. See identification table by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 84–86, to compare this species with other ranids of the Sunda Shelf region. In the Limnonectes (Limnonectes) grunniens group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 63. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 116–117, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 152, provided a brief description. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 629. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 54, provided a photograph and brief account. Shahriza and Ibrahim, 2014, Check List, 10: 253–259, provided a photograph and brief natural history observations for a population in Kedah, West Malaysia. Haas, Kueh, Joseph, bin Asri, Das, Hagmann, Schwander, and Hertwig, 2018, Evol. Syst., 2: 89–114, provided a brief account of morphology and natural history for the Sabah population. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 276–277, provided a brief account (description, photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Harmoko, Samitra, Sepriyaningsih, Yustian, and Setiawan, 2020, Biosfer, 10: 11–16, reported the species from South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Gillespie, Ahmad, and Shia, 2021, Field Guide Frog Lower Kinabatangan Region Sabah: 19, provided a brief account, summarizing identification and life history in the Lower Kinabatangan Region, Sabah, Malaysia. Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 275–277, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration. Herlambang, Riyanto, Munir, Hamidy, Kimura, Eto, and Mumpuni, 2022, Treubia, 49: 78, reported the species from Bunguran and Serasan Is., Natuna Is., Indonesia. Figueroa, Low, and Lim, 2023, Zootaxa, 5287: 1–378, provided records, literature, and conservation status for Singapore. 

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