Dicroglossinae Anderson, 1871

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae
199 species

Dicroglossidae Anderson, 1871, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 40: 38. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Discoglossidae Günther, 1858, applied in error to this taxon by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 57, according to Ohler and Dubois, 2014, Zootaxa, 3838: 590–594, and ICZN petitioned by Ohler, Amarasinghe, Andreone, Bauer, Borkin, Channing, Chuaynkern, Das, Deuti, Frétey, Matsui, Nguyen, Pyron, Rödel, Segniagbeto, Vasudevan, and Dubois, 2014, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 71: 244–249, to preserve usage. As of 18 July 2020, the ICZN has not acted on the petition and, predictably, it looks as if they lost it as it is not in their online list of requests to be acted upon. 

DicroglossiniDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 57; Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 314-315; Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 16.

DicroglossinaeDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 313; Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 16.

Paini Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 317. Type genus: Paa Dubois, 1975. Synonymy by Roelants, Jiang, and Bossuyt, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 31: 734-735.

Limnonectini Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315. Type genus: Limnonectes Fitzinger, 1843.

DicroglossiniDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 314-315; Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 16.

LimnonectinaeChen, Murphy, Lathrop, Ngo, Orlov, Ho, and Somorjai, 2005, Herpetol. J., 15: 239.

Nomina inquirenda - Name(s) unassigned to a living or extinct population

Pyxicephalus frithii Theobald, 1868, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 37: 81. Types: Not stated, but presumably ZSIC, considered lost by Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 154. Type locality: "Jessore", Bangladesh. Synonymy (with Pyxicephalus khasianus) by Stoliczka, 1872, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1872: 102. Considered a nomen dubium by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 7, and Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 154 (who considered it likely to be either in Sphaerotheca [as Tomopterna] or Fejervarya). Considered incertae sedis within Fejervarya by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 57; without discussion. * Fejervarya frithiiDubois and Ohler, 2000, Alytes, 18: 35; Fei, Ye, Jiang, and Xie, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 92. COMMENT: Not associated with a known population of frogs; see Dubois and Ohler, 2000, Alytes, 18: : 35. Previously considered incertae sedis within or synonymous with one of the members of Hoplobatrachus or Fejervarya (both considered subgenera of Limnonectes as the time) or Sphaerotheca by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5:57, 60-61. Considered as "invalid" according to Matsui, Toda, and Ota, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 73.

English Names

None noted.


Northwestern and subsaharan Africa, southern Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan and India to Afghanistan, Nepal, Malaya, and Sri Lanka; east through Nepal and Myanmar to western and southern China, Indochina, and islands of the Sunda Shelf; Philippines; Japan; reported in Papua New Guinea; introduced into Guam.


Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 16, recognized 4 tribes (Dicroglossini, Limnonectini, Occidozygini, and Paini), of which Paini was rejected as nonmonophyletic, and Occidozygini was treated as a subfamily, the sister taxon of Dicroglossinae, by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 241. See comments under Dicroglossidae. Ohler and Dubois, 2006, Zoosystema, 28: 769-784, presented a phylogenetic analysis of Paini based on morphology and did not address Frost et al. (2005), which had also addressed this group. On this basis of analysis of morphological Annandia was placed by Ohler and Dubois (2006) in a putatively monophyletic group with Euphlyctis and Limnonectes. Allopaa hazarensis they suggested was the sister taxon of all other Paini. See comments under Chrysopaa and Nanorana for further discussion. Che, Hu, Zhou, Murphy, Papenfuss, Chen, Rao, Li, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 50: 59-73, reported on molecular phylogenetics of the Paini and proposed a monophyletic taxonomy. Che, Zhou, Hu, Papenfuss, Wake, and Zhang, 2010, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107: 13765-13770 (and Che, Zhou, Hu, Papenfuss, Wake, and Zhang, 2010, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., doi:10.1073/pnas.1008415107/-/DCSupplemental: 1-5) reported on molecular phylogenetics of Paini (although lacking material of Allopaa and Chrysopaa) and suggested in their supplemental information a subgeneric taxonomy to complement the existing genera Nanorana and Quasipaa. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences confirmed the monophyly of this taxon and provided an estimate of relationship among the constituent taxa.

Contained taxa (199 sp.):

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