Limnonectes plicatellus (Stoliczka, 1873)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Limnonectes > Species: Limnonectes plicatellus

Rana plicatella Stoliczka, 1873, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 42: 116. Type(s): Not designated; ZSIC 9542 is holotype according to Sclater, 1892, List Batr. Indian Mus.: 5. Type locality: "either Penang itself or on the opposite coast of the Wellesley Province", Malaya, Malaysia.

Rana (Rana) plicatellaBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 7.

Rana (Euphlyctis) plicatellaDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 239, by implication.

Euphlyctis plicatellaPoynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 27: 124, by implication.

Limnonectes (Bourretia) plicatellusDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 62.

Limnonectes (Elachyglossa) plicatellusOhler and Dubois, 1999, Zool. Scripta, 23: 276.

English Names

Penang Wart Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 100).

Rhinoceros Frog (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 34; Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 120).

Big-headed Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 128).

Penang Fanged Frog (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 25). 


Yala and Narathiwat Provinces (peninsular Thailand) and peninsular Malaysia; Singapore.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Singapore, Thailand


See Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 53; Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 401–405; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 270–272; and Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 85–86, for synonymy and discussion. Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 36, provided a brief account. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 101. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 120–121, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Thong-aree, Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Thailand Nat. Hist. Mus. J., 5: 99–106, reported the species from Bala Forest, Narathiwat, extreme southern Thailand. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 134, detailed the range in Thailand. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Lambertz, Hartmann, Walsh, Geissler, and McLeod, 2014, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 172: 117–132, compared the head ornamentation of Limnonectes dabanus, Limnonectes gyldenstolpei, Limnonectes macrognathus, and Limnonectes plicatellus and suggested that the name Elachoglossa be restricted to this clade. Aowphol, Rujirawan, Taksintum, Chuaynkern, and Stuart, 2015, Zootaxa, 3956: 264, provided a molecular tree that suggests strongly that either nominal Limnonectes plicatellus is a species complex or that introgression has allowed Limnonectes macrognathus to infiltrate into Limnonectes plicatellusSumarli, Grismer, Anuar, Muin, and Quah, 2015, Check List, 11(4, Art. 1679): 9, reported specimens from the base of Mount Lawit, Terregganu, West Malaysia, and and reported on their morphology and habitat. See comments on morphology and natural history in West Malaysia by Chan, Muin, Anuar, Andam, Razak, and Aziz, 2019, Check List, 15: 1055–1069. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 278–279, provided a brief account (description, photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Hong, Anuar, Grismer, and Quah, 2021, Check List, 17: 795, reported the species from Batu Hampar Recreational Forest, Kedah, West Malaysia. Figueroa, Low, and Lim, 2023, Zootaxa, 5287: 1–378, provided records, literature, and conservation status for Singapore. 

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