Gastrotheca testudinea (Jiménez de la Espada, 1870)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hemiphractidae > Genus: Gastrotheca > Species: Gastrotheca testudinea

Nototrema testudineum Jiménez de la Espada, 1870, J. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat., Lisboa, 3: 62. Holotype: Not stated; given as MNCN 155 by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 20; now MNCN 3510 according to González-Fernández, García-Díez, and San Segundo, 2009, Spixiana, München, 32: 273. Type locality: "in Ecuador; prope a monti olim ignivomo Sumaco"; given as "San José de Moti, Provincia Napo, Ecuador", by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 20.

Nototrema viviparum Andersson, 1945, Ark. Zool., 37A(2): 82. Holotype: NHRM 1964 (10 specimens), according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 20. Type localities: "Baños, Rio Pastaza", Cerro Tungurahua, and "Watershed, Rio Pastaza", eastern Ecuador. Synonymy by Duellman and Fritts, 1972, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 9: 4.

Gastrotheca viviparumPeters, 1955, Rev. Ecuat. Entomol. Parsitol., 2: 348.

Gastrotheca testudineaDuellman, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 27: 4.

Gastrotheca (Opisthodelphys) testudineaDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 31.

Gastrotheca (Gastrotheca) testudinea — Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 389.

English Names

Espada's Marsupial Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 53).


Amazonian slopes of Andes in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia at elevations of 700–2275 m; possibly extending into adjacent Colombia.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Ecuador, Peru


In the Gastrotheca ovifera group of Duellman, Maxson, and Jesiolowski, 1988, Copeia, 1988: 527–543. See De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 30, for Bolivian record. See brief account by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 93. In the Gastrotheca marsupiata group of Castroviejo-Fisher, Padial, De la Riva, Pombal, Silva, Rojas-Runjaic, Medina-Méndez, and Frost, 2015, Zootaxa, 4004: 1–72. See detailed account by Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 389–394. Urgilés, Sánchez-Nivicela, and Cisneros-Heredia, 2017, Check List, 13(4): 121–125, provided notes on the distribution in Ecuador. See comments by Székely, Eguiguren, Ordóñez-Delgado, Armijos-Ojeda, and Székely, 2020, PLoS One, 15(9: e0238306): 52, regarding the population in the Abra de Zamora, Ecuador. 

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