Gastrotheca Fitzinger, 1843

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hemiphractidae > Genus: Gastrotheca
77 species

Gastrotheca Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30. Type species: Hyla marsupiata Duméril and Bibron, 1841, by original designation.

Notodelphys Lichtenstein and Weinland, 1854, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1854: 373. Type species: Notodelphys ovifera Lichtenstein and Weinland, 1854, by monotypy. Junior homonym of Notodelphys Allman, 1847 (Crustacea). Also named by Weinland, 1854, Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wiss. Med., 1854: 473. Synonymy with Nototrema by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 416.

Nototrema Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 115. Substitute name for Gastrotheca Fitzinger, 1843. Synonymy with Gastrotheca (under Nototrema) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 416. This corrected by Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 509, who noted the older name is Gastrotheca.

Opisthodelphys Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 117. Replacement name for Notodelphys Lichtenstein and Weinland, 1854. Synonymy with Nototrema by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 416. Considered a subgenus of Gastrotheca by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 30.

OpisthodelphisBrocchi, 1881, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 1): 46. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 113. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Opisthodelphys Günther, 1859 "1858".

Amphignathodon Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 450. Type species: Amphignathodon guentheri Boulenger, 1882, by monotypy. Synonymy by Duellman, Maxson, and Jesiolowski, 1988, Copeia, 1988: 527-543.

Duellmania Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 32. Type species: Hyla argenteovirens Boettger, 1892, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Gastrotheca.

Eotheca Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 121. Type species: Nototrema fissipes Boulenger, 1888. Coined as a subgenus for the Gastrotheca fissipes group. 

Cryptotheca Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 140. Type species: Gastrotheca walkeri Duellman, 1980. Coined as a subgenus for a partitioned Gastrotheca longipes group for the two species that form the sister taxon of the subgenus Amphignathodon in Duellman's (2015) maximum-likelihood tree. 

Amphignathodon — Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 146. Treatment as a subgenus of Gastrotheca for the bulk of the Gastrotheca longipes group. 

Australotheca Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 191. Type species: Nototrema microdiscus Andersson, 1910. Coined as a subgenus for the Gastrotheca microdiscus group. 

Opisthodelphys — Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 203. Recasting as a subgenus for part of the the Gastrotheca marsupiata group. 

Edaphotheca Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 210. Type species: Gastrotheca galeata Trueb and Duellman, 1978. Coined as a subgenus of Gastrotheca for part of the Gastrotheca marsupiata group.  

Gastrotheca — Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs: 281. Treatment as a subgenus for part of the Gastrotheca marsupiata group. 

Alainia Duellman and Cannatella, 2018, Alytes, 36: 195. Replacement name for Australotheca Duellman, 2015, preoccupied by Australotheca Malinky, 2009, a fossil sponge. 

English Names

Marsupial Frogs (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 52; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 52).


Costa Rica and Panama, northern and western South America southward to northern Argentina; eastern and southeastern Brazil.


Various taxa were named and species groups were defined by Duellman and Fritts, 1972, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 9: 1-37; Duellman, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 22: 1-27; and Duellman, 1983, Copeia, 1983: 868-874. Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 29-33, recognized three subgenera: Duellmania Dubois, 1987; Gastrotheca Fitzinger, 1843; and Opisthodelphys Günther, 1859, and a system of species groups and subgroups, seemingly independent of recovered evolutionary history. Duellman, Maxson, and Jesiolowski, 1988, Copeia, 1988: 527-543, discussed evolution within the genus and diagnosed the species groups noted in the accounts. Sachsse, Izecksohn, and Carvalho-e-Silva, 1999, Herpetologica, 55: 401-406, rejected Opisthodelphys as diagnosed solely by symplesiomorphies. Duellman and Venegas, 2005, Herpetologica, 61: 295-307, provided a key and map for the species of northern Peru. Wiens, Kuczynski, Duellman, and Reeder, 2007, Evolution, 61: 1886-1899, reported on phylogenetics within GastrothecaBlackburn and Duellman, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 68: 709-714, provided a molecular phylogeny of the group, excluding Cryptobatrachus.  Duellman, 2015, Marsupial Frogs, provided a review of their biology and evolution, as well as extensive identification keys; the phylogenetic analyses in this publication were superseded by that of Castroviejo-Fisher, Padial, De la Riva, Pombal, Silva, Rojas-Runjaic, Medina-Méndez, and Frost, 2015, Zootaxa, 4004: 1–72, who noted a number of unnamed species and reformulating the species groups into four noted in the species accounts: Gastrotheca marsupiata group, Gastrothecas microdiscus group, Gastrotheca longipes group, and Gastrotheca fissipes group. Carvajal-Endara, Coloma, Morales-Mite, Guayasamin, Székely, and Duellman, 2019, Zootaxa, 4562: 1–102, reviewed the species of Ecuador. 

Contained taxa (77 sp.):

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