Hemiphractus scutatus (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hemiphractidae > Genus: Hemiphractus > Species: Hemiphractus scutatus

Rana scutata Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 28. Type(s): Not designated although including animal figured in pl. 4, fig. 2 of the original publication, this image presumably being of the holotype that was ZSM 37/0, now lost; see Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 358-359, and Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 172, for discussion. Type locality: "in sylvis fluvii Solimoëns" = Rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil.

Stombus scutatusGravenhorst, 1825, Isis von Oken, 1825: 920.

Hemiphractus spixii Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 743. Substitute name for Rana scutatus Spix, 1824.

Hemiphractus scutatusWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 205. Peters, 1862, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1862: 146; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 452.

Hemiphractus divaricatus Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 114. Holotype: Stated as Smithsonian Institution (USNM) 6648; given as ANSP 4132, by Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 350. Type locality: "Napo and Maranon", Upper Amazon. Synonymy by Trueb, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 29: 42.

Hemiphractus divaricatusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 452.

Hemiphractus boulengeri Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 118. Holotype: Not designated, but BMNH by implication and museum records. Type locality: "Equador". Synonymy by Myers and Carvalho, 1945, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zool., 35: 19.

Hemiphractus scutatusTrueb, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 29: 42.

English Names

Spix's Horned Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 53). 


Upper Amazon Basin in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and western Brazil; isolated reports in middle Tapajós River region, Pará State, central Amazonian Brazil. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru


Muñoz-Saravia, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 233, provided the first record for Bolivia (Nuevas Esperanza, Provincia Federico Román, Departamento Pando). Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 22, provided a brief account. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. Moraes and Pavan, 2018, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 12(1: e51): 5–14, provided records from Pará, Brazil, and provided a spot map of the species.See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 124–125. Gagliardi-Urrutia, García Dávila, Jaramillo-Martinez, Rojas-Padilla, Rios-Alva, Aguilar-Manihuari, Pérez-Peña, Castroviejo-Fisher, Simões, Estivals, Guillen Huaman, Castro Ruiz, Angulo Chávez, Mariac, Duponchelle, and Renno, 2022, Anf. Loreto: 80–81, provided a brief account, photograph, dot map, and genetic barcode for Loreto, Peru.

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