Boana geographica (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Boana > Species: Boana geographica

Hyla geographica Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 39. Type(s): Not designated, but including animal figured on pl. 11, fig. 1 of the original publication; ZSM 35/0, now lost, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 370, and confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 167. Type locality: "flumen Teffé", Amazonas, Brazil.

Hypsiboas geographicaWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 200.

Hyla (Centrotelma) geographicaBurmeister, 1856, Erläut. Fauna Brasil.: 99.

Centrotelma geographicaCope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 204.

Centrotelma cryptomelan Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 204. Holotype: MCZ 329, by original designation (now MCZ 1530, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 237). Type locality: "Bahia", Brazil; "provàvelmente Salvador", Bahia, Brazil according to Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 24, who discussed the type locality. Synonymy with Hyla punctatissima appendiculata by Parker, 1933, Trop. Agric., Trinidad, 10: 10. Synonymy by Duellman, 1973, Copeia, 1973: 526.

Hyla cryptomelasBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 350. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the species name.

Hyla geographicaMüller, 1922, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 33: 170.

Hyla cryptomelanBarbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 237.

Hyla geographica punctatissimaParker, 1935, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1935: 512.

Hyla geographica geographicaParker, 1935, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1935: 511.

Hypsiboas geographicusFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 89.

Boana geographica — Dubois, 2017, Bionomina, 11: 28. 

English Names

Map Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 55; Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 13).


Documented with any confidence only from Amazonian northern Bolivia and Amazonian Peru to extreme western Brazil, northeastern Peru, and southeastern Colombia to about Tefé, Brazil. See comment and an enormous orphaned literature. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru


 Bokermann, 1963, An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 35: 468–470, detailed larval morphology (as nominal Hyla geographica) from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. See Duellman, 1973, Copeia, 1973: 526–530, and Lutz, 1973, Brazil. Spec. Hyla: 34–37. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 146–148, provided a brief account including characterization of call and tadpole. Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, and Zimmerman and Bogart, 1984, Acta Amazonica, 14: 473–520, reported on vocalization. Márquez, De la Riva, and Bosch, 1993, Biotropica, 25: 426–443, described the advertisement call. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 27–28, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru as Hyla geographicaDe la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 33, commented on subspecies identity in Bolivia. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 130–131, provided a brief account and photo. Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 35–37, and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 67–69, provided accounts for the Trinidad population (although this is likely not Boana goegraphica--DRF). Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 207–209, provided an account (adult and larval morphology, description of the call, life history). In the Hypsiboas semilineatus group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 89. Fouquet, Gilles, Vences, Marty, Blanc, and Gemmell, 2007, PLoS One, 10 (e1109): 1–10, provided molecular evidence that this is a species complex. Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 170–171, provided an account. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 152–153. Lynch and Suárez-Mayorga, 2011, Caldasia, 33: 235–270, illustrated the tadpole and included the species in a key to the tadpoles of Amazonian Colombia. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 405, for brief account and records for Guyana, now presumably assignable to various unnamed species variably associated with Hypsiboas semilineatus and Hypsiboas geographicus. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 152–153, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. Matavelli, Campos, and Andrade, 2014, Check List, 10: 702–705, reported this species in restringa habitats in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 36–38, described, diagnosed, and pictured the larva. Fouquet, Martinez, Zeidler, Courtois, Gaucher, Blanc, Lima, Marques-Souza, Rodrigues, and Kok, 2016, Zootaxa, 4084: 79–104, provided a molecular tree of the Hypsiboas geographicus/semilinatus clade and noted several unnamed species. Meza-Joya, Ramos-Pallares, and Hernández-Jaimes, 2019, Herpetol. Notes, 12: 391–400, identified a candidate species, their Boana cf. geographica, in central and eastern Amazonia in Brazil, and southeastern Colombia (and presumably in intervening Peru) and discussed the complex, restricting Boana geographica to western Amazonia in Bolivia, Brazil to the Peruvian border. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 63–64, for comments on range, systematics, and literature. For identification of larvae (as Hyla geographica) in central Amazonia, Brazil, see Hero, 1990, Amazoniana, 11: 201–262. Caminer and Ron, 2020, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 190: 149–180, named and resurrected several species that had been confused with this species: Boana appendiculata, Boana nigra, and Boana ventrimaculata, as well as noting other unnamed species. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. See brief account for the Manú region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 162–163. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 112, noted that records from Amapá, Brazil, probably apply to Boana diabolica or Boana aff. semilineataSchiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 44–45, detailed larval and metamorph morphology and natural history in central Amazonia, Brazil; presumably these descriptions apply to an unnamed lineage. Lescure, Dewynter, Frétey, Ineich, Ohler, Vidal, and De Massary, 2022, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 181(5): 1–17, noted that records from French Guiana actually apply to Boana semilineata and Boana diabolicaCrnobrna, Santa-Cruz Farfan, Gallegos, López-Rojas, Llanqui, Panduro Pisco, and Kelsen Arbaiza, 2023, Check List, 19: 443, provided a record from Ucayali Department, central-eastern Peru.

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