Hyla arborea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Hyla > Species: Hyla arborea

Rana arborea Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 213. Syntypes: All specimens noted by indication in the original description (see Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 321-340, for discussion), including frogs illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 73, fig. 3; 2: pl. 78, fig. 5, and Gessner, 1554, Hist. Animal. Liber II.: 55. Lectotype designated by Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 334, as specimen figured by Gessner, 1554, Hist. Animal. Liber II.: 55. (Illustration reproduced by Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 327.) (See Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18 for image of NHRM type.) Type locality: "Sub foliis arborum Europae, Americae". Restricted by lectotype designation by Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 334, to region of Zürich, canton of Zürich, Switzerland.

Rana viridis Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svec.: 102, 280. Types: not stated. Type locality: "Scania". Synonymy by Retzius, 1800, Fauna Svec., ed. 3, 1: 286; Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 170; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 74; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 166; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 105.

Hyla viridis Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 33. Type: By indication including frogs illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pls. 9-11 and frontispiece, as well as (var. b) specimen noted by Catesby, 1754, Nat. Hist. Carolina Florida Bahama Is.: 71, pl. 71 (Catesby's illustration looks to be of Hyla cinerea—DRF). Lectotype is the calling male figured in middle left position on plate 9 of Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost., according to Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 336. Type locality: "Europae arboribus"; restricted to vicinity of Nürnburg by Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 336. Named (see page 138 of original publication) as a junior synonym of Rana arborea Linnaeus. Synonymy by Daudin, 1800, Hist. Nat. Quad. Ovip., Livr. 1: 13; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 14.

Hyla vulgaris Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 459; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account starting on page 550. Substitute name for Hyla viridis Laurenti, 1768 and Rana arborea Linnaeus. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Calamita arboreusSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 153; Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 170.

Calamita viridisSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 153.

Hylaria viridisRafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 103.

Hyla arboreaCuvier, 1816 "1817", Regne Animal., 2: 94; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 166; Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 223; Lesson, 1841, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 3, 12: 60; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 379.

Hyas arboreaWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 201.

Dendrohyas arboreaTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 74.

Dendrohyas arboreusFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30.

Dendrohyas arborea var. daudinii Gistel, 1868, Die Lurche Europas: 161. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: southern France. Synonymy by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 49.

Hyla arborea arboreaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 381, by implication; Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 132.

Hyla arborea kretensis Ahl, 1931, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 45: 161. Syntypes: ZMB 31569 (according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 31-33), NHMW 18413.1-5 (according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 18, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 23). Type localities: "Canea", "Psychro auf der Lasithi-Hochebene", "Chania", "westlich von Canea", "Neapolis, nord-westl. v. St. Nikolo", Crete, Greece. Data associated with NHMW syntypes are "Canea, Kreta" and "Psychro auf der Lasithi-Hochebene". Distinctiveness from Hyla arborea arborea rejected by Schneider, 1974, Oecologia, Berlin, 14: 109; Schneider, 2004, Z. Feldherpetol., Suppl., 5: 9. But, Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 95, provided diagnostic characters. Stöck, Dubey, Klütsch, Litvinchuk, Scheidt, and Perrin, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 49: 1019-1024, rejected the distinctiveness of this taxon.

Hyla arborea cretensisStugren and Lydataki, 1986, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 42: 57. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Hyla (Hyla) arboreaFouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 331. 

English Names

Green Treefrog (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 171).

Green Tree Frog (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 75; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 49).

European Green Treefrog (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 123).

Common Tree Frog (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 254; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 75; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 49; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 77).

European Tree Frog (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 75; Stumpel, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 125).

European Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 54).


Crete and the Greek Peninsula, the northeastern Adriatic coast, and Europe west of central Poland, extreme western Ukraine, and central Romania north and west of the Alps to the Atlantic coast of France and north to Denmark and extreme southern Sweden. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine


In the Hyla arborea group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 101-102. Advertisement call reported on by Schneider, 1967, Z. Vergl. Physiol., 57: 174–189. See Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 321-340, for an extended discussion of nomenclature. All subspecies listed by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 31-33, have either been elevated to specific status or subsequently rejected as objective taxa. Schneider, 1974, Oecologia, Berlin, 14: 99-110, suggested that Hyla arborea kretensis (and Hyla arborea molleri—now Hyla molleri) are invalid. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 135-140, provided an account for Turkish populations. Schneider, 2000, Zool. Middle East, 21: 77-85, demonstrated call differences between Hyla arborea arborea and Hyla arborea kretensis, but subsequently (Schneider, 2004, Z. Feldherpetol., Suppl., 5: 9-26), on the basis of additional work rejected subspecies and specifically the distinctiveness of Hyla arborea kretensis, Hyla arborea molleri [now Hyla molleri], and Hyla arborea schelkownikowi from nominate Hyla arborea. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 271-275, reported on Swedish populations. See detailed account for Italy by Lapini, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 326-332. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 303-306, provided an account and polygon map. Stumpel, Stronks, and Zollinger, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 186-198, provided a detailed account for the species in the Netherlands. Grosse, 2011, Laubfrösche: 1-286, reviewed the biology of the species. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 198-205 provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35-57, provided a dot map for Romania. Dufresnes, Wassef, Ghali, Brelsford, Stöck, Lymberakis, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, and Perrin, 2013, Mol. Ecol., 22: 5669–5684, reported on molecular phylogeography and conservation. Dufresnes, Dubey, Ghali, Canestrelli, and Perrin, 2015, Conserv. Genetics, 16: 1507–1513, reported on introgressive hybridization with introduced Hyla intermedia in western Switzerland. Oswald, Taddey, Auffarth, Brandt, and Pröhl: 368–378, reported on conservation genetics in Germany. Gvoždík, Canestrelli, García-París, Moravec, Nascetti, Recuero, Teixeira, and Kotlík, 2015, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 83: 143–155, reported on molecular phylogenetics and biogeography. Dufresnes, Brelsford, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Tzankov, Lymberakis, and Perrin, 2015, BMC Evol. Biol., 15 (155): 1–8, reported on a hybrid zone with Hyla orientalis in northern Greece, southern Serbia and Kosovo, Bulgaria, and western Turkey. Stöck, Dufresnes, Litvinchuk, Lymberakis, Biollay, Berroneau, Borzée, Ghali, Ogielska, and Perrin, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 1–9, reported on the genetic diversity among populations of the Hyla arborea group and provided a dot map of the range, including this species. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 158–159, provided a brief account and range map. Szabolcs, Mizsei, Jablonski, Vági, Mester, Végvári, and Lengyel, 2017, Amphibia-Reptilia, 38: 435–448, provided a dot map and discussion of range in Albania. Drillon, Dufresnes, Perrin, Crochet, and Dufresnes, 2019, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 126: 743–750, documented hybridization of a hybrid Hyla molleri/Hyla arborea population with Hyla meridionalis in southwestern France. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 61, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map, as well as a photograph. Dufresnes, Berroneau, Dubey, Litvinchuk, and Perrin, 2020, Sci. Rep. (Nature, London), 10 (5502): 1–10, discussed the genetics of the contact zones with adjacent species. Majtyka, Borczyk, Ogielska, and Stöck, 2022, Ecol. Evol., 12 (1: e8527): 1–10, reported on the hybrid zone in Poland with Hyla orientalis.  Kuijt, Osk, den Boer, Dufresnes, France, Gilbert, de Visser, Struijk, and Wielstra, 2023, Amphibia-Reptilia, 44: 1–10, discussed introductions into the coastal dunes of the Netherlands. Lukanov, 2024, PeerJ, 12(e17574): 1–13, compared the advertisement calls of Hyla arborea and Hyla orientalis in Bulgaria. 

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