Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Osteopilus > Species: Osteopilus septentrionalis

Hyla lesueurii Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat., 14, 14: 452. Holotype: "V. planch. de ce Diction." (plate not seen by DRF), presumably the same as the frog illustrated by Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1831, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat., 17: plate cxxiv. Type locality: "la Havane", Cuba. Synonymy and consideration as a nomen oblitum under Art. 23.9.1 of the Interational Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) by Shea, 2001, J. Herpetol., 35: 339.

Hyla sueuriiBory de Saint-Vincent, 1831, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat., 17: 133, plate cxxiv. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Dendrohyas septentrionalis Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 33, 74. Nomen nudum. See Stejneger, 1905, in Shattuck (ed.), Bahama Islands: 330.

Trachycephalus marmoratus Bibron in De la Sagra, 1840, Hist. Fis. Polit. Nat. Cuba, 8 (Atlas Zool.): plate 29 (Reptiles). Syntypes: 2 (possibly 3) specimens figured on plate. Presumably including MNHNP 4612.  

Trachycephalus marmoratus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 538. Holotype: MNHNP 4612 according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 22. Type locality: "Cuba".  

Hyla septentrionalis Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 538. Name proposed in synonymy of Trachycephalus marmoratus. Suggested to be a replacement name for Trachycephalus marmoratus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 369. 

Trachycephalus insulsus Cope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 15: 43. Syntypes: USNM 12166 (formerly 6265) and 167237 (formerly 6266), according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 152. Including ANSP 2181, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 351. Type locality: "Cuba". Suggested synonym (with Trachycephalus marmoratus) by Gundlach, 1868, in Poey (ed.), Repert. Fis. Nat. Cuba, 2: 118. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 368 Barbour, 1914, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 44: 238.

Trachycephalus wrightii Cope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 15: 45. Holotype: USNM 5174 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 81. Type locality: "District of Guantanamo, Southeastern Cuba". Suggested synonymy (with Trachycephalus marmoratus) by Gundlach, 1868, in Poey (ed.), Repert. Fis. Nat. Cuba, 2: 118. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 368; Barbour, 1914, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 44: 238; Barbour, 1916, Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat. Felipe Poey, 2: 126.

Trachycephalus septentrionalisBarbour, 1904, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46: 56.

Hyla schebestana Werner, 1917, Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, 34: 36. Holotype: ZMH, lost, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 152, and Hallermann, 1998, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 95: 212. Type locality: "Kuba" (= Cuba). Synonymy by Duellman and Crombie, 1970, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 92: 1.

Hyla microterodisca Werner, 1921, Zool. Anz., 52: 178. Holotype: Collection not designated, presumably NHMW. Type locality: "Kuba". Synonymy by Schwartz, Thomas, and Ober, 1978, Spec. Publ. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 9.

Hyla septentrionalis septentrionalis — Barbour, 1937, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 82: 94. 

Hyla dominicensis septentrionalisMertens, 1938, Senckenb. Biol., 20: 333; Peters, 1974, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 50: 301.

Hyla insulsaMittleman, 1950, Herpetologica, 6: 26.

Hyla dominicensis insulsaMittleman, 1950, Herpetologica, 6: 26.

Osteopilus septentrionalisTrueb and Tyler, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 24: 39.

English Names

Marbled Tree-toad (Trachycephalus marmoratus [no longer recognized]: Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 172).

Giant Tree-frog (Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 62).

Cuban Treefrog (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 325; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 12; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 61; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 11; Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 13). 


West Indies: native on Cuba, Isla de Pinos (now Isla de Juventud), Cayman Is., Bahama Is.; introduced on northwestern Puerto Rico, Curacao, St. Maarten and Saba (Netherlands Antilles), North Caicos (Turks and Caicos Islands), Nevis, Antigua, Oahu (Hawaii), U.S. Virgin Is., British Virgin Is. (St. Martin and Tortola), Anguilla, southeastern Louisiana, much of Florida and adjacent coastal Georgia and Mississippi (USA), and Puerto Limón, Costa Rica.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Virgin Islands, British

Introduced: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Costa Rica, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States of America, United States of America - Florida, United States of America - Georgia, United States of America - Hawaii, United States of America - Louisiana, United States of America - Mississippi, Virgin Islands, U.S.


Reviewed by Duellman and Crombie, 1970, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 92: 1–4 (as Hyla septentrionalis). See Powell, Passaro, and Henderson, 1992, Caribb. J. Sci., 28: 234–235, for St. Maarten, Netherlands Antilles. See discussion of species nomenclature by Mittleman, 1950, Herpetologica, 6: 24–26, in which he suggested that Hyla septentrionalis Schlegel, 1837, is not a nomen nudum and applies to Hyla chalconota. Anguilla record by Townsend, Eaton, Powell, Parmerlee, and Henderson, 2000, Caribb. J. Sci., 36: 326–328. See account by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 338–340. Introduced Florida population discussed by Butterfield, Meshaka, and Guyer, 1997, in Simberloff et al. (eds.), Strangers in Paradise: 123-138. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 180183, reported on introduced population in Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico Virgin Islands, St. Martin, Anguilla, and Nevis. Owen, Perry, Lazell, Petrovic, and Egelhoff, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 76, provided a record for Tortola, British Virgin Islands. Powell, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 215, provided a record for Saba I., Netherlands Antilles. Johnson, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 349, provided the record for Georgia, USA. Lindsay and Cooper, 2008, Appl. Herpetol., 5: 96–98, reported an introduced population on Antigua, West Indies. An introduced population in Curacao was reported by van Burt, 2007, Appl. Herpetol., 4: 390–391. Díaz and Cádiz, 2008, Guía Taxon. Anf. Cuba: 127–128, provided a brief account, illustration, and map. Meshaka, Boundy, and Williams, 2009, J. Kansas Herpetol., 32: 13–16, suggested that the expanding introduced population in Florida, USA, can be expected to extend west and south completely around the Gulf of Mexico. Wilson and Bechler, 2010, Herpetol. Rev., 41: 376, provided a northern Florida, USA, record of Nassau Country. Stevenson and Somma, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 107–108, provided a record for northern Florida and discussed the particulars of that introduced range. Reynolds, Niemiller, Riggs, and Manco, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 237–238, provided a record from the Turks and Caicos Islands. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 86–89, summarized the natural history literature. Meshaka, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 463–465, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 2: 822–827, provided an account that summarized the relevant literature particularly with reference to the introduced USA populations. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 245, provided a brief summary of natural history for the this species and provided a range map for Costa Rica and photograph for this species. Rivalta González, Rodríguez Schettino, Mancina, and Iturriaga, 2014, Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv., 145: 34–36, provided a dot map and localities for Cuba. Hedges, 2011, Caribb. Herpetol., 20: 1, reported the introduced species in northwestern Puerto Rico. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 202, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. Rodriguez, Börner, Pabijan, Gehara, Haddad, and Vences, 2015, Evol. Ecol., 29: 765–785 (and supplemental data), reported on phylogeographic diversity and its causes. Jarboe, Colbert, Moore, Steen, and Johnson, 2019, Herpetol. Rev., 50: 97–98, provided new records and discussed the range in Georgia, USA. De Massary, Bochaton, Bour, Dewynter, Ineich, Vidal, and Lescure, 2018, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 166: 59-78, reported the species from Saint-Barthélemy in the Lesser Antilles. De Massary, Bour, Dewynter, Ineich, Vidal, and Lescure, 2017, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 164: 37–54, reported the species from Saint Martin, Lesser Antilles. Lieto and Burke, 2019, Herpetol. Rev., 50: 474–479, discussed the spread of invasive populations in the USA. Lindsay, Orchard, and Yokoyama, 2019, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 26: 125–126, reported tadpoles from an introduced population in Nevis I., Lesser Antilles. González-Sánchez, Johnson, González-Solís, Fucsko, and Wilson, 2021, ZooKeys, 1022: 92, discussed the introduced population in Costa Rica. Introduced populations in Florida, Mississippi, and Georgia, USA, discussed and mapped to county by Meshaka, Collins, Bury, and McCallum, 2022, Exotic Amph. Rept. USA: 45–47.


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