Scinax x-signatus (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Scinax > Species: Scinax x-signatus

Hyla x-signata Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 40. Type(s): Not designated, although including animal figured on pl. 11, fig. 3 of the original publication; holotype was ZSM 2494/0, now lost, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 364, and this confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 170. Pugliese, Baêta, and Pombal, 2009, Zootaxa, 2269: 61, suggested that a neotype designation is needed; Sturaro and Peloso, 2014, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 54: 19-20, repeated these concerns. Araujo-Vieira, Pombal, Caramaschi, Novaes-e-Fagundes, Orrico, and Faivovich, 2020, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 60 (e20206056): 7, designated CFBH 44688 as neotype. Type locality: "Provincia Bahiae", Brazil. Neotype from "campus of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz – UESC, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil (39°10′24″W, 14°47′52″S; about 30 m above sea level [a.s.l.]).  

Hyla affinis Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 33. Type(s): Not specifically designated but including animal figured on pl. 7, fig. 3 of the original publication; ZSM 2495/0 is holotype according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 363, and Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 165. Suárez-Mayorga, 2022, Brazil. J. Animal & Environm. Res., 5: 3135, noted that the existing specimen putatively from the type series is not conspecific with the animal originally described. Type locality: "fluminis Amazonum" = Rio Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy with Scinax x-signatus by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 364. Sturaro and Peloso, 2014, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 54: 19-20, and Sichieri, Gordo, and Nunes, 2019, An. Encontro Nac. Pos-Grad., Univ. Santa Cecilia, 3: 27–32, doubted this synonymy but made no taxonomic change. 

Hyla rubra x-signataMüller, 1927, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 40: 266.

Hyla x-signata x-signataLutz, 1973, Brazil. Spec. Hyla: 147.

Ololygon x-signataFouquette and Delahoussaye, 1977, J. Herpetol., 11: 393.

Scinax x-signataDuellman and Wiens, 1992, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 151: 23.

Scinax x-signatusKöhler and Böhme, 1996, Rev. Fr. Aquar. Herpetol., 23: 139.

English Names

Venezuela Snouted Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 64).

Venezuelan Snouted Treefrog (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 14). 


Non-forest habitats of northern Colombia and Venezuela to Suriname; eastern, southern, and southeastern Brazil; introduced into Guadeloupe (Basse Terre and Grande Terre), Marie Galante, and La Désirade and the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Pernambudo, Brazil. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Introduced: Guadeloupe, La Desirade


In the Scinax ruber group of Pombal, Haddad, and Kasahara, 1995, J. Herpetol., 29: 1–6; formerly in the Scinax x-signatus group. The Scinax ruber group rejected as nonmonophyletic by Faivovich, 2002, Cladistics, 18: 367–393. In the Scinax ruber clade of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 96. See Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 488–491; and Heyer, Rand, Cruz, Peixoto, and Nelson, 1990, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 31: 282–283. JPP considers this name to represent several species. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 174–175, provided a photo and brief account of a member of the Scinax x-signatus complex for French Guiana. Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 62, provided a brief account and photo. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 38–39, commented on distribution and potential for confusion with Scinax ruber in Venezuela. Silva, Santos, Alves, Sousa, and Annunziata, 2010, Sitientibus, Ser. Cienc. Biol., 7: 334–340, provided records for Piauí. Ugueto and Rivas-Fuenmayor, 2010, Amph. Rep. Margarita Coche Cubagua: 73–75, provided an account for the population (as Scinax aff. x-signatus) on the Venezuelan island of Margarita. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 188–189. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 317–578, for brief account and records for Guyana and also provided a personal communication from J. Faivovich that confident application of this name to Guyanan populations requires additional research. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 90, summarized the natural history literature of the Antillean introduced populations. Novaes and Zina, 2016, Zootaxa, 4084: 258–266, reported on the advertisement call of Scinax cf. x-signatusJuncá, 2006, Biota Neotrop., 6: 1–17, briefly summarized the presence of this species in the Serra da Jibóia region, Bahia, Brazil, and its habitat. Lynch and Suárez-Mayorga, 2011, Caldasia, 33: 235–270, illustrated the tadpole and included the species in a key to the tadpoles of Amazonian Colombia. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 190–191, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. Nogueira, Zanoni, Solé, Affonso, Siqueira, and Sampaio, 2015, Genet. Mol. Biol., 38: 156–161, reported on karyology. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 87, for comments on range, literature, and systematics (noting at least five unnamed species in Venezuela along covered by this binomial). Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. Dubeux, Silva, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2019, Rev. Nordestina Zool., 12: 18–52, summarized the literature on larval morphology. Sichieri, Gordo, and Nunes, 2019, An. Encontro Nac. Pos-Grad., Univ. Santa Cecilia, 3: 27–32, suggested on the basis of acoustic parameters that the synonymy of Hyla affinis and Hyla coerulea (now Scinax coerulea) may have been premature, but took no taxonomic action. See Dubeux, Nascimento, Lima, Magalhães, Silva, Gonçalves, Almeida, Correia, Garda, Mesquita, Rossa-Feres, and Mott, 2020, Biota Neotrop., 20 (2: e20180718): 1–24, for characterization and identification of larvae north of the Rio São Francisco in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Araujo-Vieira, Pombal, Caramaschi, Novaes-e-Fagundes, Orrico, and Faivovich, 2020, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 60 (e20206056): 1–30, provided a neotype, described the advertisement call, molecular placement in the Scinax ruber clade, and discussed the historical problems due to lacking a useful type and type locality. Alves-Ferreira, Paixão, and Nomura, 2021, Biota Neotrop., 21 (4: e20201178): 1–11, reported on larval morphology (of Scinax aff. similis) in Goiás, Brazil. Reported from the Environmental Protection Area of Catolé and Fernão Velho, Alagoas, Brazil, by Dubeux, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2021, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 61 (e20216176): 1–10, who provided a key to the frogs of that region. Palmeira, Gonçalves, Dubeux, Lima, Lambertini, Valencia-Aguilar, Jenkinson, James, Toledo, and Mott, 2022, Cuad. Herpetol., 36: 65–75, reported on habitat in Natural Heritage Reserve Mata Estrela, Baía Formosa, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reported on distribution, literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil. In the Scinax fuscovarius group of Araujo-Vieira, Lourenço, Lacerda, Lyra, Blotto, Ron, Baldo, Pereyra, Suárez-Mayorga, Baêta, Ferreira, Barrio-Amorós, Borteiro, Brandão, Brasileiro, Donnelly, Dubeux, Köhler, Kolenc, Leite, Maciel, Nunes, Orrico, Peloso, Pezzuti, Reichle, Rojas-Runjaic, Silva, Sturaro, Langone, Garcia, Rodrigues, Frost, Wheeler, Grant, Pombal, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2023, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 27 (Special Issue): 115 (see comment under Hylinae). Melo-Dias, Souza-Cruz, Moreira, Curi, Carvalho, Freitas, and Canedo, 2024, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 29: 38–65, discussed introduced populations in Brazil. Suárez-Mayorga, 2022, Brazil. J. Animal & Environm. Res., 5: 3136–37, discussed concerns about Spix's type and type locality.       


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