Scinax Wagler, 1830

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Scinax
77 species

Scinax Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 201. Type species: Hyla aurata Wied, 1821, by subsequent designation of Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 76.

Garbeana Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 67, 95. Type species: Garbeana garbei Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, by monotypy. Synonymy (with Hyla) by Lutz and Kloss, 1952, Mem. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 50: 648; Duellman, 1970, Copeia, 1970: 534.

Nomina inquirenda - Name(s) unassigned to a living or extinct population

Hyla nigra Cope, 1887, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 24: 47. Holotype: ANSP 11269, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 352. Type locality: "at or near . . . . Chupada [= Chapada dos Guimarães], thirty miles north-east of Cuyabá, and near the headwaters of the Xingu, an important tributary of the Amazon", Mato Grosso, Brazil. Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 57, considered it a synonym of Hyla geographica. Synonymy with Hyla x-signata nasica by Duellman, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 27: 14. Removed from the synonymy of Scinax nasicus by Araujo-Vieira, Valdujo, and Faivovich, 2016, Zootaxa, 4061: 271, and considered a nomen dubium.

English Names

Snouted Treefrogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 63).

Croaking Frogs (Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 22).

American Snouted Treefrogs (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 14). 


Eastern and southern Mexico to Argentina and Uruguay; Trinidad and Tobago; St. Lucia.


In Dendropsophini of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 90. See León, 1969, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 18: 505–545, for a review of the Mexican and Central American species (as Hyla). Fouquette and Delahoussaye, 1977, J. Herpetol., 11: 387–396, removed the former Hyla rubra group to Ololygon, discussed species groups (noted in the individual species accounts) within Ololygon (now part of Scinax of most authors), and discussed intergeneric relationships, all on the basis of sperm morphology. Almeida and Cardoso, 1985, Rev. Brasil. Biol., 45: 387–391, disputed the distinctiveness of this genus from HylaAndrade and Cardoso, 1987, Rev. Brasil. Zool., 3: 433–440, discussed the Scinax rizibilis group (as the Hyla rizibilis group). Pombal and Gordo, 1991, Mem. Inst. Butantan, São Paulo, 53: 139, noted that Scinax is an older name than OlolygonDuellman and Wiens, 1992, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 151: 1–23, reviewed the genus, discussed species groups (although they found no evidence for the monophyly of their Scinax ruber, Scinax staufferi, and Scinax x-signatus groups), and presented evidence that Scinax belonged to a monophyletic group including Sphaenorhynchus and Scarthyla. Keys to species of Amazonian Peru and Ecuador provided by Duellman and Wiens, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 153: 1–57. Pombal, Haddad, and Kasahara, 1995, J. Herpetol., 29: 1–6, transferred all members of the Scinax x-signatus group to the Scinax ruber group. The gender of the name is controversial, but resolved arbitrarily by Art. of the International Code (1999); see Kwet, 2001, Salamandra, 37: 211–238, who discussed the gender, the Code, and provided a key and accounts to members of the Scinax ruber group from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Faivovich, 2002, Cladistics, 18: 367–393, presented a phylogenetic analysis of Scinax, presenting evidence that the Scinax staufferi group of authors is polyphyletic, with some species nested within the Scinax catharinae group, and that the Scinax ruber group is paraphyletic with respect to the Scinax staufferi and Scinax rostratus groups; for this reason he rejected recognition of a ruber group. 

 Pombal and Bastos, 2003, Rev. Brasil. Zool., 20: 607–610, suggested vocalization data in support of a monophyletic Scinax perpusillus group. Subsequently, Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 94–96, commented on the earlier phylogenetic work on Scinax and recognized two monophyletic groups within the genus, the Scinax catharinae clade and the Scinax ruber clade; these are noted in the species accounts. Conte, Nomura, Rossa-Feres, d'Heursel, and Haddad, 2007, Amphibia-Reptilia, 28: 177–192, reviewed the larval morphology and anatomy literature of the Scinax catherinae group.  Alves-Silva and Silva, 2010 "2009", J. Nat. Hist., London, 43: 205–217, reported other behavioral synapomorphies for the Scinax perpusillus group. Duryea, Brasileiro, and Zamudio, 2009, Conserv. Genetics, 10: 1053–1056, reported on microsatellite markers in the Scinax perpusillus group. Alcalde, Vera Candioti, Kolenc, Borteiro, and Baldo, 2011, Zootaxa, 2787: 19–36, reported on larval cranial anatomy of several species. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 262–264, provided a brief summary of natural history and identification key for the species of Scinax in Central America and provided a range map and photograph for this species. Pereyra, Borteiro, Baldo, Kolenc, and Conte, 2012, Herpetol. J., 22: 133–137, commented on complex calls in the Scinax catharinae group. Nogueira, Solé, Siqueira, Affonso, Strüssmann, and Sampaio, 2016, Genet. Mol. Biol., 39: 49–53, detected an unnamed species in this group in the Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil. Peixoto, Guimarães, Lacerda, Leal, Rocha, and Feio, 2016, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 11: 53–57, reported on vocal synapomorphies of the Scinax v-signatus group. Gruber, Oliveira, Silva, Narimatsu, Haddad, and Kasahara, 2017, Comp. Cytogenet., 11: 267–283, reported on the mechanism for karyologial differentiation of former Ololygon and Scinax.  Hepp, Lourenço, and Pombal, 2017, Salamandra, 53: 212–230, reviewed the bioacoustics of the group (as Scinax catharinae group).  Gruber, Oliveira, Silva, Narimatsu, Haddad, and Kasahara, 2017, Comp. Cytogenet., 11: 267–283, reported on the mechanism for karyological differentiation of Ololygon and ScinaxDewynter, Marty, Courtois, Blanc, and Fouquet, 2017, Cah. Fondation Biotope, 12: 1–16, provided an illustrated key to the species of French Guiana. Ferrão, Moravec, Kaefer, Fraga, and Lima, 2018, J. Herpetol., 52: 480, provided a Bayesian consensus tree of several species of Scinax.  Dias and Pie, 2021, Zootaxa, 4964: 195–200, reported on larval buccopharyngeal morphology of Scinax v-signatus with comments on larval characters of the Scinax perpusillus species group. Nogueira, Rodrigues, Solé, Affonso, Siqueira, and Sampaio, 2022, Genet. Mol. Biol., 45 (1: e20210177): 1–8, provided mtDNA evidence of ca. 8 candidate and unnamed species of Scinax in Bahia and Espíritu Santo in southeastern Brazil. 

Contained taxa (77 sp.):

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