Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Goeldi, 1907)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Trachycephalus > Species: Trachycephalus resinifictrix

Hyla resinifictrix Goeldi, 1907, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1907: 135. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.23.24 (formerly 1907.2.23.1) according to Condit, 1964, J. Ohio Herpetol. Soc., 4: 94. Type locality: "Mission of San Antonio do Prata, at the River Maracanã (interior of the State of Pará)", Brazil.

Phrynohyas resinifictrixLutz, 1973, Brazil. Spec. Hyla: 248–250; Lescure, 1976, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 377: 503.

Trachycephalus resinifictrixFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 111.

English Names

Mission Golden-eyed Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 61).

Amazon Milk Frog (Trade name).

Blue Milk Frog (Trade name).

Kunawalu Casque-headed Frog (Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 210).


Eastern part of the Amazon Basin in Brazil and north into the Guianas; the status of populations (whether Trachycephalus cunauaru or Trachycephalus resinifictrix) of Venezuela and southeastern Colombia (Amazon Basin) requires confirmation. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname

Likely/Controversially Present: Colombia, Venezuela


Recognized as distinct from Phrynohyas venulosa by Lescure, 1976, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 377: 503, in which synonymy it had been placed by Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 35. Zimmerman and Hödl, 1983, Zool. Anz., 211: 341–352, provided call differences between the two species as well (although the call assigned to Trachycephalus resinifictrix may apply to what is now Trachycephalus cunauru). Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, and Zimmerman and Bogart, 1984, Acta Amazonica, 14: 473–520, reported on vocalization (noting two different calls, one possibly referrable to what is now Trachycephalus cunauru).

 Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 196–197, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. See comments regarding distribution of Venezuelan population (identification requiring confirmation) by Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 38–39. Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 210–211, provided an account. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil, although the identification requires confirmation. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 196–199. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 419, for brief account (as Trachycephalus resinifictrix) and records for Guyana. Gordo, Toledo, Suárez, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ávila, Morais, and Nunes, 2013, Herpetologica, 69: 468, referred specimens from the southern, eastern and central part of the range to Trachycephalus cunauaru. These authors suggested (and provided a map) that Trachycephalus resinifictrix sensu stricto is restricted to the eastern part of the Amazon basin and north into the Guianas. The range for Venezuela is arguable. Meneghelli and Calderon, 2017, Herpetol. Notes, 10: 119–121, provided a dot map of the distribution. Fouquet, Vidal, and Dewynter, 2019, Zoosystema, 41: 370, suggested that populations on either side of the Amazon River remains untested. For identification of larvae (as Phrynohyas resinifictrix, but possibly what is now Trachycephalus cunauru) in central Amazonia, Brazil, see Hero, 1990, Amazoniana, 11: 201–262. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reported on distribution, literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil. Schiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 81–82, detailed larval and metamorph morphology and natural history.   

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