Afrixalus osorioi (Ferreira, 1906)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hyperoliidae > Subfamily: Hyperoliinae > Genus: Afrixalus > Species: Afrixalus osorioi

Rappia osorioi Ferreira, 1906, J. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat., Lisboa, Ser. 2, 7: 162. Syntypes: MUP (3 specimens), by original indication. MUP 017307 (3 specimens) according to Ceríaco, Blackburn, Marques, and Calado, 2014, Alytes, 31: 22, who discussed the types. Type locality: "Quilombo", Angola.

Hyperolius osorioiNoble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 251, 327; Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 309.

Megalixalus fornasinii congicus Laurent, 1941, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 35: 120. Holotype: MRAC 1167, by original designation. Type locality: "Buta (Uele)", Dem. Rep. Congo. Synonymy by Schiøtz, 1974, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., 137: 10.

Megalixalus (Afrixalus) fornasini congicusLaurent, 1944, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 38: 113–114.

Afrixalus fornasini congicusGuibé, 1948, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, 20: 500, by implication.

Afrixalus dorsalis congicusLaurent, 1950, Explor. Parc Natl. Albert, Miss. G.F. de Witte (1933–1935), 64: 14.

Afrixalus congicus congicusPerret, 1960, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 61: 367.

Afrixalus osorioiLaurent, 1972, Explor. Parc Natl. Virunga, Ser. 2, 22: 4.

Afrixalus osorioi congicusLaurent, 1972, Explor. Parc Natl. Virunga, Ser. 2, 22: 4, 58.

English Names

Angola Banana Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 66).

Osorio's Spiny Reed Frog (Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 140).

Congo Spiny Reed Frog (Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 140).

Forest Tree Frog (Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 27).


Gabon south to northwestern Angola and east through Rep. Congo and Dem. Rep. Congo and Uganda to extreme western Kenya.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Angola, Congo, Democratic Republic of the, Congo, Republic of the, Gabon, Kenya, Uganda


See Schiøtz, 1974, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., 137: 10, and Perret, 1976, Bull. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat., 99: 27. See accounts by Laurent, 1972, Explor. Parc Natl. Virunga, Ser. 2, 22: 58-59; Laurent, 1982, Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent., Tervuren, Ser. Octavo, Sci. Zool., 235: 24; Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr.: 49–50, and Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 140-141. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 140-141, provided an account. Köhler, Scheelke, Schick, Veith, and Lötters, 2005, Afr. Zool., 40: 127-142, described the advertisement call. Lötters, Rotich, Koester, Kosuch, Muchai, Scheelke, Schick, Teege, Wasonga, and Veith, 2006, Salamandra, 42: 165-179, provided a Kenya locality. Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 27-28, provided an account for the Kenya population. Jongsma, Tobi, Dixon-MacCallum, Bamba-Kaya, Yoga, Mbega, Mve Beh, Emrich, and Blackburn, 2017, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 11 (1: e144): 1, provided a record from Haut-Ogooué province in southeastern Gabon. Marques, Ceríaco, Blackburn, and Bauer, 2018, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 65 (Suppl. II): 86–87, provided a map for Angola and a brief account. Baptista, Conradie, Vaz Pinto, and Branch, 2019, In Huntley, Russo, Lages, and Ferrand (eds.), Biodiversity in Angola: 262, found the range to be questionable, with the type locality in Angola separated by 1000 km from the nearest other record in Dem. Rep. Congo. Dewynter, Frétey, Jongsma, Bamba-Kaya, and Pauwels, 2018, Cah. Fondation Biotope, 18: 18, provided a brief account and photographs from the Monts Birougou area of Gabon. Dewynter and Frétey, 2019, Cah. Fondation Biotope, 27: 22, summarized the literature for Gabon, excluded the East African component from the range without explanation, implying that the taxonomic status of the various populations deserves scrutiny, and provided photographs (p. 55). Spawls, Wasonga, and Drewes, 2019, Amph. Kenya: 17, provided a range map for Kenya, photograph, and brief characterization. Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 156–157, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. Mali, Banda, Chifundera, Badjedjea, Sebe, Lokasola, Ewango, Tungaluna, and Akaibe, 2019, Am. J. Zool., 2: 38–43, reported the species from the Okapi Wildlife Reserve, northeastern Dem. Rep. Congo. See brief account, range map, and photographs for Equatorial Guinea in Sánchez-Vialas, Calvo-Revuelta, Castroviejo-Fisher, and De la Riva, 2020, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 66: 137–230. Ernst, Lautenschläger, Branquima, and Hölting, 2020, Zoosyst. Evol., 96: 253, noted the presence in Uigé Province, northwestern Angola. Kako-Wanzalire, Mongo, Ilonga, Mapoli, Mbumba, Neema, Tungaluna, Itoka, and Bogaert, 2021, Tropicultura, 39 (1: 1709): 1–19, discussed habitat preference in Tshopo and Ituri, northern Dem. Rep. Congo. Badjedjea, Masudi, Akaibe, and Gvoždík, 2022, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 16 (1: e301): 49–51, commented on a population from the Kokolopori Bonobo Nature Reserve, Tshuapa Province, Dem. Rep. Congo. Dehling and Sinsch, 2023, Diversity, 15 (512): 66, specifically excluded this species from Rwanda.

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