Hyperolius concolor (Hallowell, 1844)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hyperoliidae > Subfamily: Hyperoliinae > Genus: Hyperolius > Species: Hyperolius concolor

Ixalus concolor Hallowell, 1844, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 2: 60. Holotype: ANSP 3216, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 350. Type locality: "Liberia".

Euchnemis modestus Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 36. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 88.

Hyperolius modestus Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 88. Holotype: BMNH, by original designation; now BM 1947.2.25.47 according to museum records. Type localty: "Gold Coast". Synonymy by Peters, 1875, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1875: 207; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 124.

Hyperolius concolorCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 342; Peters, 1875, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1875: 207; Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 251.

Hyperolius concolorCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 342; Barbour and Loveridge, 1930, in Strong (ed.), Afr. Rep. Liberia Belgian Congo, 2: 783.

Rappia concolorBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 124; Chabanaud, 1921, Bull. Com. Études Hist. Scient. Afr. Occid. Franç., 1921: 457.

Hyperolius guttatus Peters, 1875, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1875: 207. Syntypes: ZMB 8378, 4489; ZMB 8378 considered lectotype by Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 73, and Perret, 1975, Rev. Suisse Zool., 82: 190. Lectotype redescribed by Frétey, Dubois, and Ohler, 2014, Alytes, 30: 20–21. Type localities: "Cameruns" and "Boutry", Cameroon; restricted by lectotype designation to "Cameruns". Corrected to the vicinity of Douala, Cameroon by Frétey, Dubois, and Ohler, 2014, Alytes, 30: 17, who discussed the types and type locality and redescribed the lectotype. Placement as a subspecies of Hyperolius ocellatus by Laurent, 1956, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 53: 235. Synonymy with Hyperolius steindachneri by Perret, 1975, Rev. Suisse Zool., 82: 190. Considered possibly conspecific with Hyperolius ocellatus by Lötters, Gossmann, Obame, and Böhme, 2001, Herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 23: 29.

Rappia sordida Fischer, 1888, Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., 5: 10. Syntypes: in "Lübecker Museum", by original designation; including BMNH 1889.12.16.160–161 (now 1947.2.9.25–26 by museum records), according to Parker, 1936, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1936: 151 (who provided a redescription). Type locality: "Kamerun". Synonymy by Loveridge, 1938, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 17: 49–74; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411.

Rappia guttata — Tornier, 1896, in Möbius (ed.), Deutsch Ost-Afr., 3: 142.

Rappia spurrelli Boulenger, 1917, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, 19: 408. Holotype: BMNH, by original designation; this being 1947.2.9.69 (formerly 1917.4.13.27) according to museum records. Type locality: "Obuasi, S. Ashantee". Synonymy with Hyperolius concolor concolor by Laurent, 1951, Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg., 82: 23–50; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411.

Hyperolius spurrelliNoble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 251, 329.

Hyperolius sordidusNoble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 252, 329; Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 335.

Hyperolius spurrelli Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 270.

Hyperolius depressus Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 61. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication; ZMB 43554 is holotype according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 421. Type locality: "Misahöhe, Togo". Synonymy by Laurent, 1958, Mem. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, 53: 275; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411. The description in Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 61, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 421.

Hyperolius togoensis  Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 112. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication. ZMB 39009 is the holotype according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 436. Type locality: “Afrika (ohne genauen Fundort)”. Synonymy by Laurent, 1958, Mem. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, 53: 275; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411.

Hyperolius maximus  Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 91. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication; this being ZMB 36113, according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 428; MCZ 17639 considered 'cotype', on exchange from ZMB by Barbour and Loveridge, 1946, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 96: 127; presumably this is a paratype (DRF). Type locality: "Ossindinge", Cameroon. Synonymy by Loveridge, 1938, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 17: 49–74; Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 78. The description in,Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 366, appeared subsequently according to  Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 428.

Hyperolius petersi Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 23. Syntypes: ZMB unnumbered according to the original publication; ZMB 5573 is holotype according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 431. Type locality: "Mombas" = Mombasa, Kenya. Synonymy by Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 77; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411. 

Hyperolius pulcher  Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 48. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication; ZMB 36088, according to Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 78. Holotype redescribed by Frétey, Dubois, and Ohler, 2014, Alytes, 30: 25–26. Type locality: "Japoma [near Douala], Kamerun". Synonymy by Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 78. The description in Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 308, appeared subsequently according to unpublished notes by Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 432.

Hyperolius argentophthalmus Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 83. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication; ZMB 36092, according to Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 78. Type locality: “ohne genauen Fundort” [without specified locality]. Synonymy by  Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: : 77; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411. The description in  Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 357, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 417.

Hyperolius moseri Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 50. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication, but not so far located according to  Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 441. Type locality: "Togo (Misahöhe)". Synonymy (with Hyperolius concolor concolor) by Laurent, 1951, Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg., 82: 30; Laurent, 1951, Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg., 82: 23–50; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411. 

Hyperolius narinus Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 109. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication; ZMB 36090, according to Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 78, and Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 429. Type locality: "Togo (Misahöhe". Synonymy, without discussion, by Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: : 77; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411; tentative synonymy by Schiøtz, 1967, Spolia Zool. Mus. Haun., 25: 176.  

Hyperolius guineensis Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 30. Syntypes: ZMB unnumbered according to the original publication; ZMB 77464 is holotype according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 424. Type locality: "Guinea". Synonymy by Laurent, 1958, Mem. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, 53: 275; Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 411; (tentative synonymy by) Schiøtz, 1967, Spolia Zool. Mus. Haun., 25: 176. The description in Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 285, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 424.

Hyperolius hildebrandti Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 101. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication; ZMB 8378, according to Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 73, and  Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 425. Type locality: "Kamerun"; Doula Region, Cameroon, according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 425. Synonymy with Hyperolius guttatus by Frétey, Dubois, and Ohler, 2014, Alytes, 30: 20. 

Hyperolius ocellatus hildebrandti — Laurent, 1950, Explor. Parc Natl. Albert, Miss. G.F. de Witte (1933–1935), 64: 107; Laurent, 1951, Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg., 82: 48; Perret and Mertens, 1957, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 19: 571. Distinctiveness from Hyperolius ocellatus purpurescens rejected by  Perret, 1975, Ann. Fac. Sci. Cameroun, 20: 23–31.

Hyperolius concolor concolor — Laurent, 1951, Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg., 82: 30; Perret, 1962, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 65: 244.

Hyperolius ocellatus guttatus — Laurent, 1956, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 53: 235; Laurent, 1958, Mem. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, 53: 288;Perret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 401; Schiøtz, 1966, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., 129: 48. See Perret, 1975, Ann. Fac. Sci. Cameroun, 20: 23–31, and Lötters, Gossmann, Obame, and Böhme, 2001, Herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 23: 29–30.

Hyperolius concolor ibadanensis Schiøtz, 1967, Spolia Zool. Mus. Haun., 25: 180. Holotype: ZMUC R 071441, by original designation. Type locality: "University of Ibadan, Nigeria".

Hyperolius concolor guttatus — Frétey, Dubois, and Ohler, 2014, Alytes, 30: 20. 

English Names

Variable Reed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 67).

Hallowell's Sedge Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 72).

Uniform Reed Frog (Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 182). 

Distribution

Eastern Sierra Leone through Benin to Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and western Cameroon. See comment. 

Comment

In the Hyperolius concolor superspecies according to Schiøtz, 1975, Treefrogs E. Afr.: 113. Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr.: 104–105, provided a brief account and map. See comment under Hyperolius stenodactylus. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 194–199, provided an account. Gambia record by Barnett, Emms, and Santoni, 2001, Herpetol. Bull., London, 77: 8, was noted as a likely misidentification by Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 6–16. Segniagbeto, Bowessidjaou, Dubois, and Ohler, 2007, Alytes, 24: 77, commented on the presence of this species in Togo. Rödel, Brede, Schiefenhövel, Penner, Sinsin, and Nago, 2007, Salamandra, 43: 238, provided a record from Lama Forest, southern Benin. See account for Cameroon by Amiet, 2012, Rainettes Cameroun: 262–270. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 209, reported on comparative tadpole morphology. : xxx, regarded this species as present in Angola, although Marques, Ceríaco, Blackburn, and Bauer, 2018, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 65 (Suppl. II): 101–102, suggested these were likely based on misidentifications. Rödel and Glos, 2019, Zoosyst. Evol., 95: 21, reported this species from the Krahn-Bassa Proposed Protected Area in southeastern Liberia and the Foya Proposed Protected Area in western Liberia. Dehling and Sinsch, 2019, Zool. Anz., 280: 65–77, placed this species in their Hyperolius cinnamomeoventris group. Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 182–183, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. See Hyperolius stenodactylus, which may be a synonym. Ayoro, Segniagbeto, Hema, Penner, Oueda, Dubois, Rödel, Kabré, and Ohler, 2020, Zoosystema, 42: 547–582, discussed records, identification, and habitat in Burkina Faso. Kanga, Kouamé, Zogbass, Gongomin, Agoh, Kouamé, Konan, Adepo-Gourène, Gourène, and Rödel, 2021, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 15: 71–107, commented on conservation status, identification, range, and habitat on the Ivory Coast side of Mont Nimba. Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 407–450, discussed the types, their provenance, and literature of Hyperolius argentophthalmus, Hyperolius depressus, Hyperolius guineensis, Hyperolius guttatus, Hyperolius hildebrandti, Hyperolius maximus, Hyperolius moseri, Hyperolius narinus, Hyperolius petersi, Hyperolius pulcher, and Hyperolius togoensis

   

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