Hyperolius kivuensis Ahl, 1931

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hyperoliidae > Subfamily: Hyperoliinae > Genus: Hyperolius > Species: Hyperolius kivuensis

Hyperolius kivuensis Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 26. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered according to the original publication; ZMB 36098, according to Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 82. Type locality: "Kivu-See" (= Lake Kivu), Dem. Rep. Congo. The description in Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 280, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 426

Hyperolius simus Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 46. Syntypes: ZMB (3 specimens) unnumbered, according to the original publication; ZMB 36111a designated lectotype by Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 82; now ZMB 36111 with the reunumbering of the other syntypes according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 434 . Type locality: "Usumbura am Tanganyika-See", Burundi. Synonymy by Laurent, 1947, Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg., 23: 1-8. The description in  Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 306, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 407–450.

Hyperolius ipianae  Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 43. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered, according to the original publication; ZMB 36091 according to Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 82. Type locality: "Ipiana". Provisional synonymy (with Afrixalus brachycnemis) by Loveridge, 1933, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 74: 346. Not mentioned in synonymy of Afrixalus brachycnemis by Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 346. Synonymy provisionally transferred to Hyperolius kivuensis by Laurent, 1943, Ann. Mus. R. Congo Belge, Tervuren, Zool., 4: 67. The description in Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 300, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 426. Lötters, Schick, Scheelke, Teege, Kosuch, Rotich, and Veith, 2004, J. Nat. Hist., London, 38: 1987, rejected the synonymy with Hyperolius kivuensis.  Considered a junior synonym of Hyperolius kivuensis multifasciatus by Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 325.

Hyperolius bituberculatus Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 27. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered according to the original publication; not located by Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 441. Type locality: "Mohasi-See [= Lake Mohasi], Ruanda [= Rwanda]". Synonymy by Laurent, 1943, Ann. Mus. R. Congo Belge, Tervuren, Zool., 4: 67; Laurent, 1950, Explor. Parc Natl. Albert, Miss. G.F. de Witte (1933–1935), 64: 60. The description in Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 281, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 441.

Hyperolius raveni Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 24. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered according to the original publication; ZMB 77750 is the holotype according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97Laurent, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 216, stated in error that the holotype was lost. Type locality: "Vulkangebiet nordöstlich des Kivu-Sees" (volcano region northeast of Lake Kivu, boundary between Dem. Rep. Congo and Rwanda). The description in  Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 291, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 433. Probably a synonym of Hyperolius kivuensis according to Laurent, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 216, although this disputed by Lötters, Schick, Scheelke, Teege, Kosuch, Rotich, and Veith, 2004, J. Nat. Hist., London, 38: 1987. Not mentioned by Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr..

Hyperolius multifasciatus Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17: 24. Holotype: ZMB 36109 according to Laurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 94. Type locality: "Missionsstation Rungwe", station of the Moravian Church (Herrnhuter Brüdergemeinde), Rungwe village, Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The description in  Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 278, appeared subsequently according to Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 429. Synonymy with Hyperolius quinquevittatus by Laurent, 1954, Publ. Cult. Companhia Diamantes Angola, 23: 77; Laurent, 1957, Explor. Parc Natl. Upemba, Miss. G.F. de Witte, 42: 34. Formerly considered a likely synonym of Megalixalus brachycnemis by Loveridge, 1933, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 74: 346. Synonymy with Hyperolius kivuensis by Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 325.

Hyperolius kivuensis kivuensisLaurent, 1950, Explor. Parc Natl. Albert, Miss. G.F. de Witte (1933–1935), 64: 59; Laurent, 1954, Publ. Cult. Companhia Diamantes Angola, 23: 135 (16 of preprint).

Hyperolius kivuensis bituberculatusLaurent, 1950, Explor. Parc Natl. Albert, Miss. G.F. de Witte (1933–1935), 64: 59.

Hyperolius sansibaricus kivuensisLaurent, 1957, Explor. Parc Natl. Upemba, Miss. G.F. de Witte, 42: 14.

Hyperolius sansibaricus ipianaeLaurent, 1961, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 64: 82.

Hyperolius kivuensis kivuensisSchiøtz, 1975, Treefrogs E. Afr.: 115.

Hyperolius kivuensis multifasciatusPickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 325.

English Names

Lake Kivu Reed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 67).

Kivu Reed Frog (Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 157; Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 164).

Volcano Reed Frog (Hyperolius raveni [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 68).

Side-striped Tree Frog (Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 33).

Distribution

Dense savannas of southwestern Ethiopia, eastern South Sudan, western Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, eastern and southern Dem. Rep. Congo, western Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia to central Angola, expected in northwestern Mozambique, possibly into northern Zimbabwe.

Comment

In the Hyperolius concolor superspecies according to Schiøtz, 1975, Treefrogs E. Afr.: 113. Easily confused with Hyperolius quinquevittatus, to which Schiøtz's Malawi record should be referred. See comment under Hyperolius raveni and Hyperolius pustulifer. Poynton and Broadley, 1987, Ann. Natal Mus., 28: 196-197, considered material from Malawi, allocated by previous authors to Hyperolius kivuensis to Hyperolius quiquevittatus. See account of Ethiopian population by Largen, 1998, Tropical Zool., 11: 61-82, and for southern African populations by Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 157-158. Largen, 2001, Tropical Zool., 14: 358, commented on distribution. Schiøtz, 1999, Treefrogs Afr.: 163–164, provided a brief account and map. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 164-165, provided an account and implied that Ethiopia, Rwanda, and Sudan are not within this species' range. Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 321-325, provided an account and comments regarding Hyperolius kivuensis kivuensis and Hyperolius kivuensis multifasciatus and confusion with Hyperolius quinquevittatus. Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 33-34, provided an account for the western Kenya population. See account, photograph, and map for Ethiopia by Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 114. Mercurio, 2011, Amph. Malawi: 158-159, provided an account for Malawi. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 212, reported on comparative tadpole morphology. Marques, Ceríaco, Blackburn, and Bauer, 2018, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 65 (Suppl. II): 104–105, provided a map for Angola and a brief account. Spawls, Wasonga, and Drewes, 2019, Amph. Kenya: 21, provided a range map for Kenya, photograph, and brief characterization. Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 198–199, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. Portik, Bell, Blackburn, Bauer, Barratt, Branch, Burger, Channing, Colston, Conradie, Dehling, Drewes, Ernst, Greenbaum, Gvoždík, Harvey, Hillers, Hirschfeld, Jongsma, Kielgast, Kouete, Lawson, Leaché, Loader, Lötters, van der Meijden, Menegon, Müller, Nagy, Ofori-Boateng, Ohler, Papenfuss, Rößler, Sinsch, Rödel, Veith, Vindum, Zassi-Boulou, and McGuire, 2019, Syst. Biol., 68: 859–875, implied in a supplemental figure that this nominal species is a complex. Tillack, de Ruiter, and Rödel, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 407–450, briefly discussed the types, their collectors, and early literature of  Hyperolius bituberculatus, Hyperolius ipianae, Hyperolius multifasciatus, Hyperolius raveni, and Hyperolius simus

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