Physalaemus fischeri (Boulenger, 1890)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Leptodactylidae > Subfamily: Leiuperinae > Genus: Physalaemus > Species: Physalaemus fischeri

Paludicola fischeri Boulenger, 1890, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1890: 327. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.18.28 (formerly 1889.12.16.764), according to museum records. Type locality: "Venezuela".

Physalaemus enesefae Heatwole, Solano, and Heatwole, 1965, Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 4: 355. Holotype: MCZ 51770 (formerly UPRP 1947), by original designation. Type locality: "Kilometer 38 on Venezuela highway No. 10, between El Dorado and La Laja, Bolivar State, Venezuela. Altitude about 100 m." Synonymy by Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 73.

Physalaemus fischeriGorham, 1966, Das Tierreich, 85: 152.

Physalaemus neglectus dunni Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 480. Holotype: USNM 147108, by original designation. Type locality: "Acacías, Meta, Colombia". Synonymy with Physalaemus enesefae by Ruiz-Carranza, Ardila-Robayo, and Lynch, 1996, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 20: 407.

Physalaemus cuvieri dunni  Harding, 1983, Cat. New World Amph.: 141. Unexplained combination. 

English Names

Fischer’s Dwarf Frog (Physalaemus fischeri: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 83).

Heatwole’s Dwarf Frog (Physalaemus enesefae [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 83).


Llanos regions of Colombia as well as the llanos, upper Orinoco region, in the states of Bolívar, Amazonas, Apure, Barinas, Cojedes, and Guárico in Venezuela.

Geographics occurrence

Natural resident: Colombia, Venezuela


Removed from the synonymy of Physalaemus gracilis by Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 88, where it had been placed by Parker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 473. Considered a synonym of Physalaemus gracilis by AJC in Duellman, 1993, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 21: 127. Duellman, 1997, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas, 2: 27–29, commented on the southeastern Venezuela population (as Physalaemus enesefae) and described the larvam call, and natural history. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 71-74, reported on this species in Venezuela and synonymized Physalaemus enesefae. See also taxonomic and distributional comments (as Physalaemus enesefae) by Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 48. Tárano, 2001, Copeia, 2001: 1064–1072, reported on variation in the advertisement call of nominal Physalaemus enesefae. In the Physalaemus cuvieri clade, Physalaemus cuvieri species group, of Lourenço, Targueta, Baldo, Nascimento, Garcia, Andrade, Haddad, and Recco-Pimentel, 2015, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 92: 204–216. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 222–223, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. Acosta-Galvis, 2017, Biota Colomb., 18: 282–315, reported the species from the Municipality of Yopal, Casanare Department, Colombia. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 99, for comments on range (with special reference to Venezuela) and literature. Hepp and Pombal, 2020, Zootaxa, 4725: 1–106, discussed this species as part of a genus-wide discussion of bioacoustical traits among the species. 

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