Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Leptodactylidae > Subfamily: Leiuperinae > Genus: Physalaemus > Species: Physalaemus marmoratus

Gomphobates marmoratus Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 "1861", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 3: 175. Types: ZMUC; ZMUC R1193 (formerly 22) designated lectotype by Nascimento, Pimenta, Cruz, and Caramaschi, 2006, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 1: 169. Type locality: "Lagoa Santa", Minas Gerais, Brazil. Not a new combination of Leiuperus marmoratus Duméril and Bibron. Secondary homonym of Leiuperus marmoratus Duméril and Bibron. Synonymy by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 42.

Physalaemus marmoratusNascimento, Pimenta, Cruz, and Caramaschi, 2006, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 1: 166.

English Names

Brown-spotted Dwarf Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 83 [as Physalaemus fuscomaculatus]).


Open habitats in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil), east-central Paraguay (Amambay, Canindeyú, and San Pedro provinces) and presumably also in adjacent eastern Bolivia.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, Paraguay

Likely/Controversially Present: Bolivia


Nascimento, Pimenta, Cruz, and Caramaschi, 2006, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 1: 166–174, discussed and resolved the confusion with Pleurodema fuscomaculatum, provided an account and considered this species to be in the Physalaemus albifrons group. Cei, 1987, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 21: 227–228, discussed this (as Physalaemus fuscomaculatus) species with respect to Physalaemus biligonigerus. See also Cei, 1990, Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 8: 215–231 (as Physalaemus fuscomaculatus). De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 43, and Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 69, discussed its possible occurrence of this species (as Physalaemus fuscomaculatus) in Bolivia and confusion with Physalaemus biligonigerus. Brandão and Araújo, 2001, in Ribeiro et al. (eds.), Cerrado—Caracterização e Recuperação de Matas de Galeria: 560–604, reported the species (as Physalaemus fuscomaculatus) in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. Nascimento, Pimenta, Cruz, and Caramaschi, 2006, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 1: 166–172, provided a discussion of the nomenclatural difficulties surrounding the application of this name. All literature prior to 2006 using the name Physalaemus fuscomaculatus should be used with great caution and with reference to the discussion provided by Nascimento et al. (2006). Weiler, Núñez, Airaldi, Lavilla, Peris, and Baldo, 2013, Anf. Paraguay: 105, provided a brief account, image, and dot map for Paraguay. In the Physalaemus cuvieri clade, Physalaemus biligonigerus species group, of Lourenço, Targueta, Baldo, Nascimento, Garcia, Andrade, Haddad, and Recco-Pimentel, 2015, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 92: 204–216. Neves, Yves, Pereira Silva, Alves, Vasques, Coelho, and Silva, 2019, Herpetozoa, Wien, 32: 113–123, provided habitat information and records for western Minas Gerais, Brazil. Hepp and Pombal, 2020, Zootaxa, 4725: 1–106, discussed this species as part of a genus-wide discussion of bioacoustical traits among the species. Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Nomura, Morais, Guerra Batista, Santos, Andrade, Oliveira, Brandão, and Bastos, 2020, Guia Ident. Anf. Goiás e Dist. Fed. Brasil Central: 138, provided an account for Goiás and the D.F., Brazil. Eterovick, Souza, and Sazima, 2020, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 1–292, provided an account, life history information, and an identification scheme for the Serra de Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Alves-Ferreira, Paixão, and Nomura, 2021, Biota Neotrop., 21 (4: e20201178): 1–11, reported on larval morphology in Goias, Brazil. Santos, Feio, and Nomura, 2023, Biota Neotrop., 23 (3:e20231486): 1–43, characterized tadpole morphology as part of an identification key to the tadpoles of the Brazilian Cerrado.   

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