Adenomera hylaedactyla (Cope, 1868)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Leptodactylidae > Subfamily: Leptodactylinae > Genus: Adenomera > Species: Adenomera hylaedactyla

Cystignathus hylaedactylus Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 115. Holotype: ANSP 2240, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 351. Type locality: "From the Napo or upper Maranon" River, Peru. Carvalho, Giaretta, Maciel, Barrera, Aguilar-Puntriano, Haddad, Kokubum, Menin, and Angulo, Copeia, 2019: 708–723, suggested that the holotype is unidentifiable and the name may not apply to the species but to Adenomera andreae or Adenomera simonstuarti

Leptodactylus hylaedactylusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 240.

Leptodactylus hololius Boulenger, 1918, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 2: 430. Holotype: BMNH, by original designation; BMNH 1915.3.9.13 (reregistered 1947.2.17.54) according to museum records. Type locality: "Pebas, R. Marañon, Peru". Synonymy by Heyer, 1973, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 251: 35.

Leptodactylus minutus Noble, 1923, Zoologica, New York, 3: 295. Holotype: AMNH 13495, by original designation. Type locality: "Bartica District, British Guiana". Synonymy by Heyer, 1973, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 251: 35.

Leptodactylus rugosus Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 58. Holotype: NHMG Ba. Ex. 506, according to XXX. Type locality: "vicinity of Manáos, Brazil". Synonymy by Heyer, 1973, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 251: 35. Preoccupied by Leptodactylus rugosus Noble, 1923.

Leptodactylus poeppigi Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 59. Holotype: NHMG Ba. Ex. 507, according to XXX. Type locality: "Roque, [Departamento San Martín,] Perú". Synonymy by Heyer, 1973, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 251: 35.

Leptodactylus melini Lutz and Kloss, 1952, Mem. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 50: 639. Replacement name for Leptodactylus rugosus Melin, 1941.

Leptodactylus marmoratus hylaedactylusRivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 33.

Leptodactylus hylaedactylusHeyer, 1973, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 251: 35.

Adenomera hylaedactylaHeyer, 1974, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 253: 43; Kwet, Steiner, and Zillikens, 2009, Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ., 44: 94, by implication; Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 574.

Leptodactylus (Lithodytes) hylaedactylusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 362.

English Names

Napo Tropical Bullfrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 70).

Dark-spotted Thin-toed Frog (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 14). 


Amazonian forests of southeastern Colombia and Venezuela east through the Guianas (see comment) and south into northern, eastern, and central Brazil, and south through Amazonian Ecuador and Peru to Bolivia, 0–1000 m elevation; Trinidad. An apparently introduced population in southwestern Tobago. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela

Introduced: Trinidad and Tobago


Records from Argentina and Paraguay now assigned to Adenomera diptyx. See account by Heyer, 1973, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 251: 35–40. Heyer and Silverstone, 1969, Fieldiana, Zool., 51: 141–145, reported on larval morphology. See comment under Adenomera diptyx. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 226–227, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 64–65, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru. Márquez, De la Riva, and Bosch, 1995, J. Zool., London, 237: 313–336, reported on vocalization in Bolivia. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 111–112, provided a brief account. Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 79–80, provided an account for Trinidad. Angulo, Cocroft, and Reichle, 2003, Herpetologica, 59: 490–504, reported the call. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 23, suggested that Paraguayan records of this species are based on misidentifications. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. See account (as Leptodactylus hylaedactyla) for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 16–19. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 420–421, for brief account and records for Guyana. Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, reported on advertisement call. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 202–203, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 89, for comments on range and literature. Fouquet, Vidal, and Dewynter, 2019, Zoosystema, 41: 370–371, noted that the inselberg population of southern French Guiana and farther south is unlikely to be conspecific with the nominate species found along the coast. Dubeux, Silva, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2019, Rev. Nordestina Zool., 12: 18–52, summarized the literature on larval morphology. See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 216–217. Dubeux, Gonçalves, Ramos, Melo, Silva, and Mott, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 997–1002, provided a record (as Adenomera aff. hylaedactyla) for Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, Quebrangulo Municipality, Alagoas, Brazil, and commented on natural history and range. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru. Camper, Torres-Carvajal, Ron, Nilsson, Arteaga-Navarro, Knowles, and Arbogast, 2021, Check List, 17: 729–751, provided a record from Wildsumaco Wildlife Sanctuary, Napo Province, Ecuador. Reported from the Environmental Protection Area of Catolé and Fernão Velho, Alagoas, Brazil, by Dubeux, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2021, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 61 (e20216176): 1–10, who provided a key to the frogs of that region. Palmeira, Gonçalves, Dubeux, Lima, Lambertini, Valencia-Aguilar, Jenkinson, James, Toledo, and Mott, 2022, Cuad. Herpetol., 36: 65–75, reported on habitat in Natural Heritage Reserve Mata Estrela, Baía Formosa, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reported on distribution, literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil. Schiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 85–86, detailed larval and metamorph morphology and natural history. Auguste, Auguste, Maingot, Pandey, and Muhammad, 2023, Reptiles & Amphibians, 30(e20741): 1–2, reported an introduced, reproducing population of Adenomera cf. hylaedactyla in southwestern Tobago

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