Leptobrachium smithi Matsui, Nabhitabhata, and Panha, 1999

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Leptobrachiinae > Genus: Leptobrachium > Species: Leptobrachium smithi

Leptobrachium smithi Matsui, Nabhitabhata, and Panha, 1999, Japan. J. Herpetol., 18: 19–29. Holotype: NHMT A 001, by original designation. Type locality: "Ton Nam Plu Waterfall, Khao Chong, Trang Province, Thailand (7° 34′ N, 99° 49′ E, alt. 260 m)".

Leptobrachium (Leptobrachium) smithiDelorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 12.

English Names

Smith's Litter Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 78; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 39).

Red-eyed Frog (Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 28).

Java Spade Foot Toad (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 51 [Note: inasmuch as the species does not occur in Java, this English name is clearly inappropriate]).

Southern Bicolor-eyed Toadfrog (Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 41). 

Smith’s Spadefoot Toad (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 32).

Smith's Bicolor-eyed Toadfrog (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 27).

Smith's Litter Toad (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 5).


Northwestern Thailand (Mae Hong Song province) and adjacent eastern Myanmar (Taunggyi District, Shan Province)south through western and central (Phetchaburi and Loei provinces) and the peninsula into extreme northern Malaya (Malaysia) and adjacent Peninsular Myanmar; Sayaboury and Vientiane provinces, western Laos (Louangphabang, Vietniane, Xaignabouli, and Oudomxai provinces) (see comment); isolated records requiring confirmation in Assam, Tripura, Mizoram, and Meghalaya, northeastern India (see comments below and under Leptobrachium rakhinense, Leptobrachium sylheticum, and Leptobrachium rakhinense); Chittagong, Moulvibazar, and Rangamati Hill districts, Bangladesh.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bangladesh, India, Laos, Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand


Confused with Leptobrachium hasseltii and Leptobrachium pullum prior to its description; the original publication dealt with comparative morphology and advertisement calls. Reported for Kamrup District, Assam, India, by Sengupta, Choudhury, and Das, 2001, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 98: 289–291, and Choudhury, Hussain, Buruah, Saikia, and Sengupta, 2002, Hamadryad, 26: 276. Das and Chanda, 2004, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 10: 245–246, reported the species in Myanmar. Chakravorty, Borah, and Bordoloi, 2002, Bull. Life Sci., India, 10: 47–54, described larval morphology (as Leptobrachium hasselti) at Gosner stage 38 from a population in Assam, India. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 78–79, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Reported for Pulau Langkawi, Kadeh, northwestern West Malaysia, by Grismer, Youmans, Wood, Ponce, Wright, Jones, Johnson, Sanders, Gower, Yaakob, and Lim, 2006, Hamadryad, 30: 61–74. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 474, provided records for Laos. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted a few larval descriptions, of varying completeness in the literature. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 124, detailed the range in Thailand. Manthey and Denzer, 2013, Sauria, Berlin, 35: 8–12, provided a brief account and photograph, covering adult and larval morphology, advertisement call, habitat, and range. Pawangkhanant, Poyarkov, Duong, Naiduangchan, and Suwannapoom, 2018, PeerJ, 6 (e3584): 1–27, provided a dot map, genetically-confirmed localities, and comparative morphological information. Mulcahy, Lee, Miller, Chand, Thura, and Zug, 2018, ZooKeys, 757: 95, provided a record from Taninthary Division, southern Myanmar. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 138–139, provided a brief account (photograph, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 41–42, provided a brief account for South Tanintharyi, peninsular Myanmar. Nguyen, Brakels, Maury, Sudavanh, Pawangkhanant, Idiiatullina, Lorphengsy, Inkhavilay, Suwannapoom, and Poyarkov, 2020, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 14 (2: e248): 218–249, discussed the range and provided a record from Oudomxai Provinces, Laos. Hakim, Trageser, Ghose, Das, Rashid, and Rahman, 2020, Check List, 16: 1239–1268, reported the species from Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh.  Purkayastha, Khan, and Roychoudhury, 2020, in Roy et al. (eds.), Socio-economic and Eco-biological Dimensions in Resource use and Conservation, Environmental Science and Engineering: 225–233, provided a record for Rowa Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, India. See comments under Leptobrachium rakhinenseMakchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 94–95, provided a brief account, photographs, and a range map. Decemson, Gouda, Lalbiakzuala, Lalmuansanga, Hmar, Mathipi, and Lalremsanga, 2021, J. Threatened Taxa, 13: 17918–17929, provided the record for Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mamit District, Mizoram, India. Al-Razi, Maria, and Poyarkov, 2021, J. Nat. Hist., London, 55: 85–114, suggested that records from northeastern India may apply to Leptobrachium sylheticum, but need to be confirmed via molecular assay. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 27, briefly discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. Ong and Shahriza, 2022, Bioacoustics, 31: 89–91, described the advertisement call. Rahman, Nneji, and Hossain, 2022, J. Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 15: 154, excluded the species from the Bangladesh fauna without explanation. Raj, Vasudevan, Aggarwal, Dutta, Sahoo, Mahapatra, Sharma, Janani, Kar, and Dubois, 2023, Alytes, 39–40: 53–57, reported on larval morphology of specimens from Mizoram, India. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.