Grillitschia aceras (Boulenger, 1903)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Megophryinae > Genus: Grillitschia > Species: Grillitschia aceras

Megalophrys montana var. aceras Boulenger, 1903, in Annandale and Robinson (eds.), Fasciculi Malayenses, 2(1): 131-132. Type(s): Not stated;  likely ZRC and by museum records BMNH 1947.2.25.2–3 (formerly 1903.4.13.129–130); clearly including animal figured on pl. 5, fig. 1 of the original publication. Type locality: "Bukit Besar", 2500 feet elevation, Perak, Malay Peninsula, Malaysia.

Megalophrys acerasSmith, 1926, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1926: 983.

Megophrys acerasSmith, 1930, Bull. Raffles Mus., 3: 132.

Megophrys (Megophrys) acerasDubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 472.

Panophrys acerasRao and Yang, 1997, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 7: 98–99. Tentative arrangement.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) acerasDubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 14; Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 755. 

Xenophrys acerasKhonsue and Thirakhupt, 2001, Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ., 1: 75; Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23; by implication; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 17; Lyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 39.

Xenophrys (Xenophrys) aceras — Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2017, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 106: 41. 

Grillitschia aceras — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 133. 

English Names

Perak Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86).

White Breastgland Spine-eyed Frog Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 86).

Yellow Horn Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 86).

Malayan Horned Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 82).

Perak Horned Toad (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 35). 


Peninsular Thailand and West Malaysia, 500 to 1000 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Thailand


Accounts provided by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 192–194, and Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 287–290. See also Dring, 1979, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Zool., 34: 184. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 79–80. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 86, provided a brief characterization and photograph. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 82–83, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Grismer, Youmans, Wood, Ponce, Wright, Jones, Johnson, Sanders, Gower, Yaakob, and Lim, 2006, Hamadryad, 30: 61–74, noted the species on Langkawi, off the northwest coast of West Malaysia. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Thong-aree, Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Thailand Nat. Hist. Mus. J., 5: 99–106, reported the species from Bala Forest, Narathiwat, extreme southern Thailand. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 126, detailed the range in Thailand. See comment under Megophrys parallelaSumarli, Grismer, Anuar, Muin, and Quah, 2015, Check List, 11(4, Art. 1679): 12, reported specimens from Mount Tebu, Terregganu, West Malaysia, and briefly reported on their morphology and habitat. Specimens from Sumatra, Indonesia, are now referred to the more recently named Megophrys parallelaMunir, Hamidy, Farajallah, and Smith, 2018, Zootaxa, 4442: 389–412, provided a genetically-confirmed record from Perk, peninsular Malaysia, and comparative morphological data, and discussed the literature surrounding an earlier claim of occurrence in Sumatra. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 142–143, provided a brief account (photograph, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). In the Xenophrys aceras group of Lyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 9–40. 

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