Megophryinae (Bonaparte, 1850)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Megophryinae
136 species

Megalophreidina Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1 p. Type genus: Megalophrys Wagler, 1830 (= Megophrys Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822).

Megalophryinae — Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A,, 87: 25.

Megophryinae — Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 492; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 15.

Megalophryninae — Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 129.

Megophryini — Dubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 471; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 15.

Megophryidae — Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 94–117.

Xenophryini Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 17. Type genus Xenophrys Günther, 1864. 

English Names

Asian Spadefoot Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 87; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 22).

Asian Horned Toads (Lyu, Qi, Wang, Zhang, Zhao, Zeng, Wan, Yang, Mo, and Wang, 2023, Zool. Res., Kunming, 44: 38). 


Tropical Asia from India and Bhutan to China and south to the Sundas and the Philippines. 


See discussion under Megophryidae and Megophrys. There is a substantial rank-disagreement regarding taxa within Megophryinae among authors. Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 744–771, provided the first comprehensive molecular tree of the group and placed all megophryines into one genus, Megophrys, with multiple subgenera. Deuti, Grosjean, Nicolas, Vasudevan, and Ohler, 2017, Alytes, 34: 20–48, provided a 5-genus taxonomy based on their tree. Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 413–414, provided a tree of megophryines and a 7-genus taxonomy based on less dense taxon sampling and evidence than was employed by Lyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 9–40. Qian, Li, Chen, Li, and Yang, 2023, ZooKeys, 1139: 10–12, summarized the literature on larval morphology. Lyu, Qi, Wang, Zhang, Zhao, Zeng, Wan, Yang, Mo, and Wang, 2023, Zool. Res., Kunming, 44: 380–450, provided a revision of the the subfamily, including a detailed survey of previous literature and an analysis of molecular markers and morphological characters. 

Contained taxa (136 sp.):

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