Elachistocleis bicolor (Guérin-Méneville, 1838)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Gastrophryninae > Genus: Elachistocleis > Species: Elachistocleis bicolor

Oxyrhynchus bicolor Guérin-Méneville, 1838, Icon. Regne Animal, 3: 17, pl. 27, fig. 2. Holotype: Animal figured in pl. 27, no. 2, in original publication (but see Lavilla, Vaira, and Ferrari, 2003, Amphibia-Reptilia, 24: 279); originally in "Cuv. Coll. Mus." (= MNHNP), not recently located. Type locality: "l'Amerique méridionale [= South America]", considered by Lavilla, Vaira, and Ferrari, 2003, Amphibia-Reptilia, 24: 279, to likely be "Buenos Aires, Argentina".

Oxyrhincus bicolorDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 738. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the generic name.

Engystoma ovale var. bicolorBoulenger, 1885, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 16: 195.

Engystoma ovale concolor Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 12: 284. Holotype: MZUSP 41, by original designation; now MZUSP 2021 according to XXX. Type locality: "Ypiranga", São Paulo, Brazil.

Elachistocleis ovale bicolorParker, 1927, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 187: 4.

Elachistocleis ovalis bicolorMüller and Hellmich, 1936, Wissenschaft. Ergebn. Deutschen Gran Chaco Exped., Amph. Rept.: 92; Freiberg, 1942, Physis, Buenos Aires, 19: 219–240.

Elachistocleis bicolorCarvalho, 1954, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 555: 1–19.

Elachistocleis matogrosso Caramaschi, 2010, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zool., 527: 18. Holotype: MNRJ 4812, by original designation. Type locality: "BRAZIL: MATO GROSSO: Cuiabá (15° 36′ S, 56° 06′ W; 177 m altitude)". Synonymy by Novaes-e-Fagundes, Lyra, Loredam, Carvalho, Haddad, Rodrigues, Baldo, Barrasso, Loebmann, Ávila, Brusquetti, Prudente, Wheeler, Orrico, and Peloso, 2023, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 197: 558.

Engystoma matogrosso — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 216. 

Engystoma bicolorDubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 216. 

English Names

Two-colored Oval Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 89).


Brazil from the Amazonas-Rondônia border south through Amazonian Bolivia and southern Mato Grosso (Brazil) to northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, and the state of São Paulo (Brazil) south through Uruguay. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay


Review in Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 155. See comment under Elachistocleis. Williams and Gudynas, 1987, Amphibia-Reptilia, 8: 225–229, reported on larval morphology. Suggested to be a junior synonym of Elachistocleis ovalis by Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 203–204. See also comment by De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 51. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 142–143, provided a brief account. Achaval and Olmos, 2003, Anf. Rept. Uruguay, ed. 2: 51, provided a brief account and photograph for the Uruguay population (as Elachistocleis ovale). Vera Candioti, 2007, Zootaxa, 1600: 1–175, reported on detailed larval morphology. López and Pelegrin, 2012, Check List, 8: 798–799, provided a range extension to Córdoba, Argentina, and commented on the range. Pereyra, Akmentins, Laufer, and Vaira, 2013, Zootaxa, 3694: 535, noted that the record for Tarija Province, southeastern Bolivia, is assignable to Elachistocleis haroiAllen, von May, Villacampa-Ortega, Burdekin, and Whitworth, 2014, Check List, 10: 388–391, suggested that records from southeastern Peru to northwestern Bolivia are referable to Elachistocleis muiraquitanRossa-Feres and Nomura, 2006 "2005", Biota Neotrop., São Paulo, 6 (2: bn00706012006): 1–24, characterized larval morphology of this species (provisional identification) and provided a key to the larvae of northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. Brouard, Manders, and Smith, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 29: 97–98, provided a record (as Elachistocleis matogrosso), description, and photograph from the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Santa Rosa del Aguaray, Departmento San Pedro, Paraguay. Abreliano, Zaracho, and Sandoval, 2015, Biologia, Bratislava, 70: 958–967, reported on larval ontogeny from specimens collected in Corrientes, Argentina. Advertisement call (as Elachistocleis matogrosso) provided by Pansonato, Mudrek, Nunes, and Strüssmann, 2018, Salamandra, 54: 92–96. See Marinho, Carvalho, Bang, Teixeira, Azarak, Costa-Campos, and Giaretta, 2018, Zootaxa, 4521: 357–375, for discussion (as Elachistocleis matogrosso) of advertisement call, intraspecific variation, and diagnosis. Jowers, Othman, Borzée, Rivas-Fuenmayor, Sánchez-Ramírez, Auguste, Downie, Read, and Murphy, 2021, Organisms Divers. Evol., 21: 189–206, discussed the phylogenetics and biogeography of nominal Elachistocleis matogrosso and Elachistocleis bicolor. In the Elachistocleis bicolor group of Novaes-e-Fagundes, Lyra, Loredam, Carvalho, Haddad, Rodrigues, Baldo, Barrasso, Loebmann, Ávila, Brusquetti, Prudente, Wheeler, Orrico, and Peloso, 2023, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 197: 545–568.  

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