Hypopachus pictiventris (Cope, 1886)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Gastrophryninae > Genus: Hypopachus > Species: Hypopachus pictiventris

Engystoma pictiventre Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 272. Holotype: USNM 14196 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 48. Type locality: "Nicaragua"; restricted by Savage, 1973, J. Herpetol., 7: 37, to "between El Castillo and San Juan del Norte along the Río San Juan . . . Departamento Río San Juan, Nicaragua".

Gastrophryne pictiventrisStejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23: 166; Carvalho, 1954, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 555: 1–19.

Engystoma pictiventrisNieden, 1926, Das Tierreich, 49: 64.

Microhyla pictiventrisParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 126.

Hypopachus pictiventrisStreicher, Cox, Campbell, Smith, and de Sá, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 64: 645–653.

English Names

Nicaragua Narrowmouth Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 89).

Southern Narrow-mouthed Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 96).


Lowlands of southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica, sea level to 500 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, Nicaragua


Reviewed by Nelson, 1973, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 135: 1–2 (as Gastrophryne pictiventris). Lips and Savage, 1996, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 109: 17–26, included this species (as Gastrophryne pictiventris) in a key to the tadpoles found in Costa Rica. Donnelly, de Sá, and Guyer, 1990, Am. Mus. Novit., 2976: 1–19, reported on larval morphology (as Gastrophryne pictiventris). See account (as Gastrophryne pictiventris) by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 393–394. See comments by Sunyer, Páiz, Dehling, and Köhler, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 189–202, regarding Nicaraguan populations (as Gastrophryne pictiventris). Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 285–286, provided a brief summary of natural history and provided a range map and photograph for this species (as Gastrophryne pictiventris). Streicher, Cox, Campbell, Smith, and de Sá, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 64: 645–653, demonstrated that Gastrophryne was paraphyletic with respect to Hypopachus and remedied this with the transfer of Gastrophryne pictiventris and Gastrophryne elegans to Hypopachus).  Sunyer, Martínez-Fonseca, Salazar-Saavedra, Galindo-Uribe, and Obando, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 172, provided the third record for Nicaragua from the department of Atlántico Sur, Nicaragua. 

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