Kaloula conjuncta (Peters, 1863)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Microhylinae > Genus: Kaloula > Species: Kaloula conjuncta

Hylaedactylus (Holonectes) conjunctus Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 455. Syntypes: NHMW 22888, AMNH 23554, and ZMB 4922, according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 47; NHMW 22888 incorrectly listed as holotype by Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 20, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 24. Type locality: "Luzon", Philippine Islands.

Callula conjunctaCope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 192.

Kaloula conjuctaTaylor, 1920, Philipp. J. Sci., 16: 325.

Kaloula negrosensis Taylor, 1922, Philipp. J. Sci., 21: 180. Holotype: EHT 583, by original designation; now CAS 62124 according to Slevin and Leviton, 1956, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 28: 536. Type locality: "Hinigaran, Negros", Philippines. Provisional synonymy by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 89; Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 442.

Kalaoula conjuncta conjunctaInger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 441.

Kalaoula conjuncta negrosensisInger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 442.

Kaloula conjucta stickeli Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 443. Holotype: FMNH 60786, by original designation. Type locality: "Carigara, Leyte, Philippine Islands. "

English Names

Philippine Narrowmouth Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 90).

Truncate-toed Chorus Frog (Gaulke, 2011, Herpetofauna Panay Island: 92 [for Kaloula conjuncta negrosensis]).


Philippines from Luzon to Negros, Panay, and Sibuyan.  


See Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 566-569. See discussion by Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 437-445, for subspecies.  Ferner, Brown, Sison, and Kennedy, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 39, suggested that Kaloula negrosensis would be recognized with additional data. Gaulke, 2011, Herpetofauna Panay Island: 92-94, provided a brief account (as Kaloula conjuncta negrosensis) for Panay Island, Philippines. See brief notes for Mindanao, Philippines, by Sanguila, Cobb, Siler, Diesmos, Alcala, and Brown, 2016, ZooKeys, 624: 36–37, who suggested on the basis of the results of Blackburn, Siler, Diesmos, McGuire, Cannatella, and Brown, 2013, Evolution, 67: 2631–2646, that all nominal subspecies likely all deserve to be recognized as species. But, these authors only formally so considered the Mindanao populations, Kaloula meridionalis, rendering nominal Kaloula conjuncta a paraphyletic assemblage of three or four diagnosable island populations. 

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