Kaloula conjuncta (Peters, 1863)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Microhylinae > Genus: Kaloula > Species: Kaloula conjuncta

Hylaedactylus (Holonectes) conjunctus Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 455. Syntypes: NHMW 22888, AMNH 23554, and ZMB 4922, according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 47; NHMW 22888 incorrectly listed as holotype by Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 20, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 24. Type locality: "Luzon", Philippine Islands.

Callula conjunctaCope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 192.

Kaloula conjuctaTaylor, 1920, Philipp. J. Sci., 16: 325.

Kaloula negrosensis Taylor, 1922, Philipp. J. Sci., 21: 180. Holotype: EHT 583, by original designation; now CAS 62124 according to Slevin and Leviton, 1956, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 28: 536. Type locality: "Hinigaran, Negros", Philippines. Provisional synonymy by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 89; Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 442.

Kalaoula conjuncta conjunctaInger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 441.

Kalaoula conjuncta negrosensisInger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 442.

Kaloula conjucta stickeli Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 443. Holotype: FMNH 60786, by original designation. Type locality: "Carigara, Leyte, Philippine Islands. "

English Names

Philippine Narrowmouth Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 90).

Truncate-toed Chorus Frog (Gaulke, 2011, Herpetofauna Panay Island: 92 [for Kaloula conjuncta negrosensis]).


Philippines from Luzon to Negros, Panay, and Sibuyan.  

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Philippines

Endemic: Philippines


See Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 566-569. See discussion by Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 437-445, for subspecies.  Ferner, Brown, Sison, and Kennedy, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 39, suggested that Kaloula negrosensis would be recognized with additional data. Gaulke, 2011, Herpetofauna Panay Island: 92-94, provided a brief account (as Kaloula conjuncta negrosensis) for Panay Island, Philippines. See brief notes for Mindanao, Philippines, by Sanguila, Cobb, Siler, Diesmos, Alcala, and Brown, 2016, ZooKeys, 624: 36–37, who suggested on the basis of the results of Blackburn, Siler, Diesmos, McGuire, Cannatella, and Brown, 2013, Evolution, 67: 2631–2646, that all nominal subspecies likely all deserve to be recognized as species. But, these authors only formally so considered the Mindanao populations, Kaloula meridionalis, rendering nominal Kaloula conjuncta a paraphyletic assemblage of three or four diagnosable island populations.  Meneses, Siler, Alviola, Balatibat, Gonzalez, Natividad, and Brown, 2022, Check List, 18: 941–984, reported the species from Sibuyan I., Philippines, and discussed its habitat, but noted that this population differs in advertisement call to the population at the type locality of Kaloula conjuncta negrosensis

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