Odontophrynidae Lynch, 1969

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Odontophrynidae
55 species

Odontophrynini Lynch, 1969, Final PhD Exam, Program: 3 (a privately printed summary and widely distributed as a reprint by JDL); Lynch, 1971, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 53: 142. Type genus: Odontophrynus Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 "1861".

Macrogenioglottidae Reig, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 30. Type genus: Macrogenioglottus Carvalho, 1947. Synonymy with Odontophrynini by implication of Lynch, 1971, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 53: 130; Lynch, 1973, Bioscience, 23: 497.

Odontophryini — Lynch, 1973, Bioscience, 23: 497.

OdontophrynaeArdila-Robayo, 1979, Caldasia, 12: 474–475.

OdontophryinidaePyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583.

Odontophryninae — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 170.

Proceratophryinae Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 170. Type genus: Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920. 

English Names

None noted.


Southern and eastern South America.


Original recognized by Lynch, 1969, Final PhD Exam, Program: 3; Lynch, 1971, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 53: 142, as a similarity grouping within the huge Leptodactylidae (sensu lato) recognized at that time. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 210, recognized the members of Odontophrynini as part of their Cycloramphidae (sensu lato). Roelants, Gower, Wilkinson, Loader, Biju, Guillaume, Moriau, and Bossuyt, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 887–892, on the basis of less inclusive sampling, a moderately different molecular dataset, and a different analytical method than Frost et al. (2006) found Cycloramphidae (sensu lato) to be polyphyletic, with Rhinoderma and Odontophrynus to be far from each other phylogenetically. Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009, Zootaxa, 2211: 1–35, suggested on the basis of considerable molecular evidence, but narrower taxon sampling than Frost et al. (2006) that Cycloramphidae is not monophyletic, with the Odontophrynus and Proceratophrys being relatively close to Bufonidae, with other elements being related to other taxa. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 572, recovered and recognized Odontophrynidae as here employed. For additional discussion see comments under Ceratophryidae and Cycloramphidae for discussion of this and related clades of South American frogs. Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 39–55, briefly reviewed the taxonomic history of this taxon. Dias, Amaro, Carvalho-e-Silva, and Rodrigues, 2013, Zootaxa, 3682: 277–304, provided a Bayesian tree of molecular data for the family, with particular focus on the species of Proceratophrys. Blotto, Pereyra, Faivovich, Dias, and Grant, 2017, Zootaxa, 4258: 425–442, reported on the evolution of foot musculature in the family. See comment under Limnomedusa (Alsodidae). Streicher, Miller, Guerrero, Correa-Quezada, Ortiz, Crawford, Pie, and Wiens, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 119: 128–143, provided a large molecular tree suggesting that Bufonidae is the sister taxon of Odontophrynidae, compared their tree to previous hypotheses, and found Odontophrynidae is a member of a large monophyletic group, termed Commutibirana by them, composed of Brachycephaloidea, Allophrynidae, Centrolenidae, Dendrobatoidea, Leptodactylidae, Odontophrynidae, and Bufonidae. Mângia, Magalhães, Leite, Cavalheri, and Garda, 2022, J. Herpetol., 56: 130, provided a 16s mtDNA tree of the species within the family, which supported the monophyly of alll three genera. Elias-Costa, Araujo-Vieira, and Faivovich, 2021, Cladistics, 37: 498–517, discussed the evolution of submandibular musculature optimized on the tree of Jetz and Pyron, 2018, Nature Ecol. & Evol., 2: 850–858, which provided morphological synapomorphies of this taxon. Barcelos and Santos, 2023, Paleodivers. Palaeoenvironm., 103: 341–405, reviewed the fossil localities and the literature of the fossil history of this group in South America.    

Contained taxa (55 sp.):

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