Odontophrynus Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Odontophrynidae > Genus: Odontophrynus
11 species

Odontophrynus Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 "1861", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 3: 159. Type species: Odontophrynus cultripes Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862, by monotypy.

Hyperoodon Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 1. Type species: Hyperoodon asper Philippi, 1902, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Hyperoodon Lacèpéde, 1804 (Cetacea). Synonym with Paludicola Wagler by Boulenger, 1903, Zool. Rec., 39: 29. Considered a nomen dubium, possibly in Paludicola by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 513. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 266.

English Names

Escuerzos (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 82).


Southern and eastern South America.


Savage and Cei, 1965, Herpetologica, 21: 178–195, reviewed the genus. Beçak and Beçak, 1974, J. Herpetol., 8: 337–341, discussed phylogeny in the genus. Cei, 1970, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 27: 181–192, suggested a distant relationship between Odontophrynus and the remaining ceratophryids (sensu stricto). Brandão and Batista, 2000, Iheringia, Zool., 89: 165–171, implied a relationship of Odontophrynus with Proceratophrys on the basis of larval morphology. Rosset, Baldo, Lanzone, and Basso, 2006, J. Herpetol., 40: 465–477, discussed the ranges of diploid and tetraploid members of the Odontophrynus americanus complex and noted an undescribed species in northeastern Argentina, Uruguay, eastern Paraguay, and southern Brazil, formerly confused with Odontophrynus cordobae. Amaro, Pavan, and Rodrigues, 2009, Zootaxa, 2071: 61–68, demonstrated that Macrogenioglottis is phylogenetically imbedded within Odontophrynus. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, suggested that Macrogenioglottus is the sister taxon of Odontophrynus. Nascimento, Mott, Langone, Davis, and de Sá, 2013, Zootaxa, 3700: 140–158 reported on comparative larval morphology within the genus. Ferraro, Blotto, Baldo, Barrasso, Barrionuevo, Basso, Cardozo, Cotichelli, Faivovich, Pereyra, and Lavilla, 2018, in Vaira, Akmentins, and Lavilla (eds.), Cuad. Herpetol., 32 (Supl. 1): 17–19, noted the populations/species in Argentina require taxonomic elucidation. Martino, Dehling, and Sinsch, 2019, PeerJ, 7(e6480): 1–32, revised the genus and provided access to literature of calls, ecology, karyology, and life history. Cianciarullo, Bonini-Domingos, Vizotto, Kobashi, Beçak, and Beçak, 2019, Genet. Mol. Biol., 42: 436–444, reported on ploidy, genomic, morphological, and hemoglobin differentiation among allopatric populations in the Odontophrynus americanus complex, and suggested that additional work will likely result in the naming of additional lineages. Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Nomura, Morais, Guerra Batista, Santos, Andrade, Oliveira, Brandão, and Bastos, 2020, Guia Ident. Anf. Goiás e Dist. Fed. Brasil Central: 168, noted an unnamed species in Goiás, Brazil. 

Contained taxa (11 sp.):

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