Proceratophrys avelinoi Mercadal de Barrio and Barrio, 1993

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Odontophrynidae > Genus: Proceratophrys > Species: Proceratophrys avelinoi

Proceratophrys avelinoi Mercadal de Barrio and Barrio, 1993, Amphibia-Reptilia, 14: 14. Holotype: CENAI 10.867, by original designation; now in MACN. Type locality: "Moncholito, Misiones, República Argentina".

English Names

Avelino's Smooth Horned Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

Cow Frog (Hiert and Moura, 2004, Herpetol. Rev., 35: 184).


Known from several localities in Misiones Province, Argentina, and in Londrina and Guarapuava municipality, state of Paraná and Municipality of Derrubadas, extreme northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; also reported for extreme southeastern Paraguay (departments of Itapúa and Alto Paraná) in isolated populations.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay


In the Proceratophrys bigibbosa group according to Kwet and Faivovich, 2001, Copeia, 2001: 203-215, who provided an account. Herrero, 1991, Genet. Select. Evol., 23: 184-185, provided an additional Brasilian record and discussed the range. de Sá and Langone, 2002, J. Herpetol., 36: 490–494, reported on larval morphology. Kwet and Baldo, 2003, Amphibia-Reptilia, 24: 104–107, reported on the advertisement call. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 16-17, provided the first record for Paraguay (Itapúa). Cacciali, Esquivel, Elder, Smith, and Brusquetti, 2007, Bellbird (online:, 2: 1 page, reported a new locality in Paraguay near the other Paraguayan locality. Caldart, Iop, Santos, and Cechin, 2010, Biota Neotrop., 10: 143-147, provided a record for extreme northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and provided a locality map for the species. Carosini, Pérez, Ortiz, Valdez, Torres, and de la Sancha, 2010, Check List, 6: 332–333, provided a new locality, and discussed the range of the species in Paraguay (isolated records in the departments of Itapúa and Alto Paraná). Weiler, Núñez, Airaldi, Lavilla, Peris, and Baldo, 2013, Anf. Paraguay: 120, provided a brief account, image, and dot map for Paraguay. Vicente-Ferreira, Nascimento, Batista, Kardush, Reyes, and Garey, 2024, Biota Neotrop., 24(1: e20231526): 1–17, provided records from the Refúgio Biológico Bela Vista, Paraná, southern Brazil (adjacent to the Paraguay border), as well as providing identification keys to these species based on larval and adult morphology.   

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