Strongylopus merumontanus (Lönnberg, 1907)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pyxicephalidae > Subfamily: Cacosterninae > Genus: Strongylopus > Species: Strongylopus merumontanus

Rana merumontana Lönnberg, 1907, in Sjöstedt (ed.), Wissenschaft. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exped. Kilimandjaro, 1(4): 21. Note that a preprint was distributed in 1907, although the overall volume did not appear until 1910. Holotype: Deposition not stated, although NHRM 1367, by museum records. Type locality: "Meru mountain 3,000 m. above the sea", Arusha, Tanzania.

Rana fülleborni Nieden, 1911 "1910", Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1910: 436. Holotype: ZMB. Type locality: "Kratersee des Ngosi-Vulkans, (Wentzel-Heckmannsee) 2700 m hoch nördlich von Langengesammelt und zu Ehren desselben benannt", Poroto Mountains, Tanzania. Synonymy by Loveridge, 1933, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 74: 356 (as Rana fasciata merumontana), Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 346 (with Rana grayii). and (with Stronglylopus merumontana) by Channing and Davenport, 2002, Afr. J. Herpetol., 51: 140, and Channing, Schmitz, Zancolli, Conradie, and Rödel, 2022, Rev. Suisse Zool., 129: 243. 

Rana (Ptychadena) merumontanaDe Witte, 1921, Rev. Zool. Afr., 9: 7.

Rana (Ptychadena) fuelleborni — De Witte, 1921, Rev. Zool. Afr., 9: 7.

Rana fasciata merumontanaBarbour and Loveridge, 1928, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50: 197.

Rana fasciata fülleborni — Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 373.

Rana fasciata fuelleborni — Poynton, 1964, Senckenb. Biol., 45: 203.

Strongylopus fasciatus fuelleborni — Van Dijk, 1977, Zool. Afr., 12: 178; Channing, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 334.

Stronglylopus fuelleborni — Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 353.

Stronglylopus merumontanusChanning and Davenport, 2002, Afr. J. Herpetol., 51: 140.

Strongylopus kitumbeine Channing and Davenport, 2002, Afr. J. Herpetol., 51: 137. Holotype: CAS 225064, by original designation. Type locality: "Kitumbeine Forest" on Kitumbeine Mountain, an extinct volcano in northern Tanzania. Synonymy by Channing, Schmitz, Zancolli, Conradie, and Rödel, 2022, Rev. Suisse Zool., 129: 243. 

Strongylopus kilimanjaro Clarke and Poynton, 2005, Afr. J. Herpetol., 54: 54. Holotype: BMNH 1936.2.2.2, by original designation. Type locality: "Mt. Kilimanjaro . . ., at an altitude of 3230 m (10 600 feet)". Synonymy by Channing, Schmitz, Zancolli, Conradie, and Rödel, 2022, Rev. Suisse Zool., 129: 243. 

English Names

Mount Meru Stream Frog (Stronglylopus merumontanus: Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 326; Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 360).

Long-toed Grass Frog (Stronglylopus fuelleborni [no longer recognized]: Stewart and Wilson, 1966, Ann. Natal Mus., 18: 299).

Fülleborn's Stream Frog (Stronglylopus fuelleborni [no longer recognized]: Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 353).

Kitumbeine Stream Frog (Strongylopus kitumbeine [no longer recognized]: Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 325).

Kilimanjaro Stream Frog (Strongylopus kilimanjaro [no longer recognized]: Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 360).

Distribution

Highlands of northern Tanzania (Mount Meru, Mount Kilimanjaro, West Usambaras, Ulugurus, Rubehos, Udzungwas, Southern Highlands including Mount Rungwe, and Ufipa Plateau), possibly in adjacent Kenya, and south in isolated highlands  to those in Malawi (Misuku Hills, Nyika Plateau, Zomba Plateau, and Shire Highlands, including Lake Rukwa and Lake Malawi), northeastern Zambia, and northern Mozambique (Mount Namuli, Zambezia Province, and Mount M'paluwe, 1500–3000 m elevation, and northern Moza).

Comment

See account  (as Strongylopus fuelleborni) by Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 354-355, who removed it from the synonymy of Strongylopus grayii where it had been placed by Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 346. See Channing and Davenport, 2002, Afr. J. Herpetol., 51: 140 (as Strongylopus merumontana), for discussion of systematics and history of taxonomy and Poynton, 2004, Afr. J. Herpetol., 53: 29-34 (as Strongylopus merumontana), for discussion of systematics and taxonomy. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 326-328, provided accounts (as Strongylopus merumontana and Strongylopus fuelleborni). See account by Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 92-94 (as Strongylopus fuelleborni). See photographs, maps, descriptions of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status  (as Strongylopus merumontana and Strongylopus kitumbeine) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 515 (as Strongylopus merumontana). Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 282–283, provided a brief account (as Strongylopus fuelleborni) and photograph. Mercurio, 2011, Amph. Malawi: 291, provided an account (as Strongylopus merumontana) for Malawi. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 350–352, provided information (as Strongylopus fuelleborni) on comparative larval morphology. Conradie, Bittencourt-Silva, Engelbrecht, Loader, Menegon, Nanvonamuquitxo, Scott, and Tolley, 2016, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 92: 163–180, reported a population (as Strongylopus fuelleborni) from Mounts Mabu and Namuli, Zambezia Province, Mozambique. Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 360–361, provided brief accounts (as Strongylopus merumontana, Strongylopus kilamanjaro, and Strongylopus kitumbeine), photographs, and range maps. Channing, Schmitz, Zancolli, Conradie, and Rödel, 2022, Rev. Suisse Zool., 129: 243–281, reported on molecular phylogenetics, morphology, distribution, and advertisement call. 

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