Nyctixalus pictus (Peters, 1871)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Nyctixalus > Species: Nyctixalus pictus

Ixalus pictus Peters, 1871, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1871: 580. Holotype: MSNG 10062, according to Capocaccia, 1957, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 3, 69: 217. Type locality: "Sarawak", Malaysia (Borneo).

Rhacophorus anodon Van Kampen, 1907, Zool. Ergebn. Reis. Niederland. Ost-Indien, 4: 400. Holotype: ZMA 5707, according to Van Tuijl, 1995, Bull. Zool. Mus. Univ. Amsterdam, 14: 129. Type locality: "Schlucht bei Ajer Mantjur (Kaju tanam)" = cleft near Ajer Mantjur, Kaju tanam, Sumatra, Indonesia. Synonymy (with Ixalus pictus) by Smith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 19, and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 349–350. This synonymy provisionally not accepted pending revisionary studies by Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 39.

Philautus pictusBarbour, 1912, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 44: 69, 171; Van Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 269.

Philautus anodonVan Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 269.

Rhacophorus (Philautus) anodonAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 68.

Rhacophorus (Philautus) pictusAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 54, 84.

Hazelia pictaTaylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 506.

Philautus pictus pictusInger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 350; Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 257.

Hazelia anodonLiem, 1970, Fieldiana, Zool., 57: 96.

Nyctixalus anodonDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 257; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2005, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 74: 166. Recognized without discussion. This arrangement rejected by Inger and Tan, 1996, Raffles Bull. Zool., 44: 564.

Edwardtayloria pictaDring, 1982, in Anderson et al. (eds.), Gunung Mulu National Park: 293. Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 85.

Nyctixalus pictusMatsui, 1996, Herpetol. J., 6: 62.

Theloderma (Nyctixalus) pictum — Poyarkov, Orlov, Moiseeva, Pawangkhanant, Ruangsuwan, Vassilieva, Galoyan, Nguyen, and Gogoleva, 2015, Russ. J. Herpetol., 22: 276. 

Nyctixalus pictus — Sivongxay, Davankham, Phimmachak, Phoumixay, and Stuart, 2016, Zootaxa, 4147: 244.  

English Names

Painted Indonesian Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 111).

Spotted Tree Froglet (Kiew, 1987, Malayan Nat. J., 41: 418).

Sumatra Indonesian Treefrog (Nyctixalus anodon [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 111).

Spotted Tree Frog (Leong and Crane, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 62).

White-spotted Brown Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 150).

White-spotted Treefrog (Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 59; Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 42).

Cinnamon Treefrog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 146).

Cinnamon Frog (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 160).

Cinnamon Tree Frog (Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 412).


Peninsular Myanmar (Taninthary Division) and peninsular Thailand (Yala), West Malaysia, and Philippines (Palawan) south to northern Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, Brunei, and northern Kalimantan, Indonesia), northern Sumatra and Bunguran I., Natuna Is., Indonesia, 50-100 m elevation; controversially to Vietnam (see comment).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah), Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand


See Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 4559 (as Philautus pictus); Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 506–509 (as Hazelia picta) and Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 94–95. See account of Bornean population (as Philautus pictus) by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 349–352. Brown and Alcala, 1994, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 48: 187–188, provided an account. Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 19, doubted records from Karnataka, India. Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 37, provided a brief account. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 124–126. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 91, provided the Vietnam record but that the record is so far removed from the main range renders this record dubious. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 176–177, provided an account.Pauwels, Sumontha, and Matsui, 2004, Herpetol. Rev., 35: 283, briefly discussed the range in Thailand and noted its proximity to Myanmar. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 146–147, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 34, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 174, rejected a record for Karnataka, India. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 161, provided a brief description. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 634. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 69, provided a photograph and brief account. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. See brief account by Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 59–60, for the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Haas, Kueh, Joseph, bin Asri, Das, Hagmann, Schwander, and Hertwig, 2018, Evol. Syst., 2: 89–114, provided a brief account of morphology and natural history for the Sabah population. Mulcahy, Lee, Miller, Chand, Thura, and Zug, 2018, ZooKeys, 757: 95, provided a record from Taninthary Division, southern Myanmar. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 412–413, provided a brief account (description, photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 58, excluded Singapore from the range without comment and suggested that the Vietnam records required confirmation. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 42, briefly discussed habitat, range, and identification in Myanmar. Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 361–363, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration. Herlambang, Riyanto, Munir, Hamidy, Kimura, Eto, and Mumpuni, 2022, Treubia, 49: 78, reported the species from Bunguran I., Natuna Is., Indonesia.

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