Nyctixalus Boulenger, 1882

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Nyctixalus
3 species

Nyctixalus Boulenger, 1882, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 10: 35. Type species: Nyctixalus margaritifer Boulenger, 1882, by monotypy.

Hazelia Taylor, 1920, Philipp. J. Sci., 16: 292. Type species: Hazelia spinosa Taylor, 1920, by original designation. Preoccupied by Hazelia Walcott, 1920. Synonymy with Nyctixalus by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 255.

Edwardtayloria Marx, 1975, Sci. Publ. Sci. Mus. Minnesota, N.S., 2: 1–3. Replacement name for Hazelia Taylor, 1920.

Nyctixalus —  Poyarkov, Orlov, Moiseeva, Pawangkhanant, Ruangsuwan, Vassilieva, Galoyan, Nguyen, and Gogoleva, 2015, Russ. J. Herpetol., 22: 256. Treatment as a subgenus of Theloderma

English Names

Indonesian Treefrogs (NyctixalusFrank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 111).


Lowland and montane rainforests of Mindanao, Leyte, Bohol, Palawan, and Basilan Islands, Philippines; Peninsular Thailand (Yala) and Myanmar; and northern Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, Brunei, and northern Kalimantan, Indonesia) and northern Sumatra, 50–100 m elevation and Java; possibly Vietnam.


Nyctixalus was removed from the synonymy of Philautus by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 257, where it had been placed by Smith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 19. See comment under Theloderma molochWilkinson, Drewes, and Tatum, 2002, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 24: 265–273, Grosjean, Delorme, Dubois, and Ohler, 2008, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 46: 169–176, Li, Che, Bain, Zhao, and Zhang, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 302–312, and Yu, Rao, Zhang, and Yang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 50: 571–579, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that Nyctixalus is the sister taxon of ThelodermaPyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, confirmed this placement. Li, Li, Klaus, Rao, Hillis, and Zhang, 2013, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110: 34413446, further confirmed this placement. See extensive relevant comments under ThelodermaSivongxay, Davankham, Phimmachak, Phoumixay, and Stuart, 2016, Zootaxa, 4147: 440, discussed the issues of misidentified tissues, inter-analytical method discrepancy and the history of the discussion and on this basis recognized Nyctixalus as distinct from Theloderma

Contained taxa (3 sp.):

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