Scaphiopus Holbrook, 1836

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Scaphiopodidae > Genus: Scaphiopus
3 species

Scaphiopus Holbrook, 1836, N. Am. Herpetol., 1: 85. Type species: Scaphiopus solitarius Holbrook, 1836 (= Rana holbrooki Harlan, 1835), by monotypy.

English Names

Spade Foot Toads (Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 92).

Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 96).

Southern Spadefoots (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 28; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 9).

North American Spadefoots (Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 22; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 21; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 20).


Arid regions of northern Mexico and the southwestern USA northeast to the southeastern and northeastern USA.


Kluge, 1966, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 113: 1–26, discussed phylogeny of this genus and its (former) subgenera. Tanner, 1989, Great Basin Nat., 49: 38–70, and Wiens and Titus, 1991, Herpetologica, 47: 21–28, following Tihen, 1960, Copeia, 1960: 89–95, and Kluge, 1966, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 113: 1–26, removed Spea from the synonymy of Scaphiopus. Powell, Collins, and Hooper, 2011, Key Herpetofauna U.S. & Canada, 2nd Ed.: 38, provided a key to the species.

Contained taxa (3 sp.):

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