Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier, 1827

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Amphiumidae > Genus: Amphiuma > Species: Amphiuma tridactylum

Syren quadrapeda Custis In Freeman and Custis, 1807, Account Red River Louisiana: 23. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Twenty one miles below Natchitoches [along the Red River in Louisiana] . . . in a pond near the River", USA. Suppressed for Purposes of Priority, but not Principle of Homonymy by Opinion 1733, Anonymous, 1993, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 50: 183.

Siren quadrupes — Barton In Jarocki, 1822, Zool. Universal List Animals, 3: XXX. 

Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier, 1827, Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14: 7. Type(s): MNHNP 7821 is holotype (lectotype designation by implication) according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 6; this specimen considered one of the syntypes by Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 78. Type locality: "Nouvelle-Orleans" = New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Muraenopsis tridactylaFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34.

Amphiuma tridactylaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 82.

Amphiuma means tridactylumGoin, 1938, Herpetologica, 1: 128; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 54; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28.

Amphiuma tridactylumBaker, 1947, J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 22: 12; Hill, 1954, Tulane Stud. Zool., 1: 214.

English Names

Three Toes Congo Snake (Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 109).

Three-toed Congo Snake (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 186; Löding, 1922, Mus. Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 9)).

Four-footed Siren (Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 109).

Three-fingered Siren (Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Lamp Eel (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28).

Lamper Eel (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28).

Three-toed Congo Eel (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 54; Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 44; Viosca, 1949, Pop. Sci. Bull., Louisiana Acad. Sci., 1: 9).

Three-toed Amphiuma (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 54; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 246; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 38; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Three-toed Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27).


Southeastern Missouri and adjacent Kentucky and southwestern Indiana south in the Mississippi embayment to western Alabama, all of Louisiana, southwestern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas, USA.


See detailed accounts by Salthe, 1973, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 149: 1–3, Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 136–138, and Boundy, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 646–648. See discussion of nomenclature by Dundee, 1989, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 25: 80–84. Lacki, Hummer, and Fitzgerald, 2001, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 110: 111–113, noted a record for Indiana. Birkhead, Johnson, Boback, and Boback, 2004, Herpetol. Rev., 35: 279, provided a record for southern Alabama. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 228, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 98–99, provided an account of larval morphology. 

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