Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier, 1827

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Amphiumidae > Genus: Amphiuma > Species: Amphiuma tridactylum

Syren quadrapeda Custis In Freeman and Custis, 1807, Account Red River Louisiana: 23. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Twenty one miles below Natchitoches [along the Red River in Louisiana] . . . in a pond near the River", USA. Suppressed for Purposes of Priority, but not Principle of Homonymy by Opinion 1733, Anonymous, 1993, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 50: 183.

Siren quadrupes — Barton In Jarocki, 1822, Zool. Universal List Animals, 3: XXX. 

Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier, 1827, Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14: 7. Type(s): MNHNP 7821 considered in error the holotype by Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 6; this specimen considered one of the syntypes by Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 78. Type locality: "Nouvelle-Orleans" = New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Muraenopsis tridactylaFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34.

Amphiuma tridactylaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 82.

Amphiuma means tridactylumGoin, 1938, Herpetologica, 1: 128; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 54; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28.

Amphiuma tridactylumBaker, 1947, J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 22: 12; Hill, 1954, Tulane Stud. Zool., 1: 214.

English Names

Three Toes Congo Snake (Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 109).

Three-toed Congo Snake (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 186; Löding, 1922, Mus. Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 9)).

Four-footed Siren (Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 109).

Three-fingered Siren (Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Lamp Eel (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28).

Lamper Eel (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28).

Three-toed Congo Eel (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 54; Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 44; Viosca, 1949, Pop. Sci. Bull., Louisiana Acad. Sci., 1: 9).

Three-toed Amphiuma (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 54; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 28; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 246; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 38; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Three-toed Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27).


Southeastern Missouri and adjacent Kentucky and southwestern Indiana south in the Mississippi embayment to western Alabama, all of Louisiana, southwestern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas, USA.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: United States of America, United States of America - Alabama, United States of America - Arkansas, United States of America - Indiana, United States of America - Kentucky, United States of America - Louisiana, United States of America - Mississippi, United States of America - Missouri, United States of America - Oklahoma, United States of America - Tennessee, United States of America - Texas

Endemic: United States of America


See detailed accounts by Salthe, 1973, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 149: 1–3, Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 136–138, and Boundy, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 646–648. See discussion of nomenclature by Dundee, 1989, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 25: 80–84. Lacki, Hummer, and Fitzgerald, 2001, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 110: 111–113, noted a record for Indiana. Birkhead, Johnson, Boback, and Boback, 2004, Herpetol. Rev., 35: 279, provided a record for southern Alabama. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 228, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 98–99, provided an account of larval morphology. Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 499–500, provided an account, summarizing systematics, life history, population status, and distribution (including a polygon map). 

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