Batrachuperus karlschmidti Liu, 1950

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Batrachuperus > Species: Batrachuperus karlschmidti

Batrachuperus karlschmidti Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 87. Holotype: FMNH 49379, by original designation. Type locality: "Chiala [= Jiana] (11,000 feet altitude), Luhohsien [= Luhuo County], Sikang [=Sichuan Province]", China.

Batrachuperus (Batrachuperus) karlschmidti — Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 60. 

English Names

Chiala Mountain Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 10).

Schmidt's Stream Salamander (Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 60).


Northern Sichuan (Baiyu, Kangding, Litang, Luhou, Rangtang, Seda, Xilong, Xinduqiao, Yajiang, and Yongning Counties), northeastern Tibet, and southeastern Gansu, China, 1500–4250 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: China, People's Republic of

Endemic: China, People's Republic of


Removed from the synonymy of Batrachuperus pinchonii by Fei, Ye, and Tian, 1983, Acta Zootaxon. Sinica, 8: 212. The status of this taxon was subsequently controversial, passing in and out of synonymy with Batrachuperus tibetanus (synonymy by Fei, Ye, and Tian, 1983, Acta Zootaxon. Sinica, 8: 209-219; resurrected by Zhao and Jiang, 1988, in Zhao et al. (eds.), Studies on Chinese Salamanders: 50; resurrection reaffirmed by Zhao, 1990, in Zhao (ed.), From Water onto Land: 217-220, but rejected by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 60; distinctiveness finally confirmed by Chen, Jiang, and Qu, 2004, Acta Zootaxon. Sinica, 29: 464-469, and Fu, Wang, Zeng, Liu, and Zheng, 2001, Copeia, 2001: 1100-1107, who noted several undescribed species in the Batrachuperus tibetanus complex. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2006, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 1: 233, continued to regard Batrachuperus karlschmidti as a junior synonym of Batrachuperus tibetanus. Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 111-114, and Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 61, provided accounts. See map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 547. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 10-11, provided an account for Xizang, China. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 78–79, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 249, without explanation considered this species to be a synonym of Batrachuperus tibetanus.  Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 39–41, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species. Liu, Xiong, Gou, and Gao, 2020, Asian Herpetol. Res., 11: 194–204, reported on geographic variation in skull morphometry among four populations. Xiong, Luo, and Zeng, 2020, Zool. Res., Kunming, 41: 589–594, provided a seemingly partial map of the species distribution. See account for Tibet by Che, Jiang, Yan, and Zhang, 2020, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 57–61. Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 60, provided an account, covering systematics, life history, and distribution (including a polygon map). Tighe, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 654: 17, briefly discussed the type series.  

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