Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider, 1799)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus scaber

Bufo scaber Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 222. Syntypes: "Musei Blochiani" (= ZMB); three specimens of which ZMB 3464 was considered holotype by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 80, and which was designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 142, who redescribed the specimen. Type locality: "Orientali India". Senior homonym of Bufo scaber Daudin, 1802, and Bufo scaber Duméril and Bibron.

Bufo fergusonii Boulenger, 1892, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 7: 317. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.21.17 (formerly 92.6.9.3), according to Inger, 1985, In Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 44. Type locality: "Trevandrum on the Cavalry Parade Ground", Kerala, India. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 143.

Bufo stomaticus peninsularis Rao, 1920, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 27: 126. Holotype: ZSIC 19176 according to Chanda, Das, and Dubois, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 104. Type locality: "Mavkote and Watekille, Coorg", India. Synonymy by implication of Srinivasulu, Ganesh, and Srinivasulu, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4789.  

Bufo atukoralei Bogert and Senanayake, 1966, Am. Mus. Novit., 2269: 2. Holotype: AMNH 74290, by original designation. Type locality: "near the Buttuwa Circuit Bungalow at Yala, Southern Province, Ceylon [=Sri Lanka]". Synonymy by Jayawardena, Senevirathne, Wijayathilaka, Ukuwela, Manamendra-Arachchi, and Meegaskumbura, 2017, Ceylon J. Sci., 46 (Special issue): 79. 

"Bufo" atukoralei — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

"Bufo" scaberFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

Duttaphrynus atukoralei — Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 4.

Duttaphrynus scaberVan Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 4.

English Names

Schneider's Toad (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 19).

Schneider's Dwarf Toad (de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 64).

Ferguson's Toad (Bufo fergusonii [no longer recognized]: Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 434; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 38; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Boulenger's Burrowing Toad (Bufo fergusonii [no longer recognized]: Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 20).

Rough Dwarf Toad (Deuti, Sethy, and Ray, 2014, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 114: 123).

Dwarf Toad (Ganesh, Rameshwaran, Joseph, Jerith, and Dutta, 2020, J. Threatened Taxa, 12: 16274). 

Yala Toad (Duttaphrynus atukoralei [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Atukorale's Dwarf Toad (Duttaphrynus atukoralei [no longer recognized]: de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 62).

Distribution

Sri Lanka and peninsular India (including Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Madhya Pradesh) north to West Bengal; an isolated (doubtful) record in Manipur in northeastern India.

Comment

In the Bufo stomaticus group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See De Silva, 1955, Spolia Zeylan., 27: 251-253; Bogert and Senanayake, 1966, Am. Mus. Novit., 2269: 1-18; Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 22-24; and Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 62-63. See comment under Bufo atukoralei. See Donahue and Daniel, 1967 "1966", J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 63: 447, for northeastern India record and Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 434, for brief account (as Bufo fergusonii). Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 133-180, discussed the nomenclature of this taxon (and related ones) and included it in a restricted Bufo scaber group. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 21-23, provided a brief account for the Indian population. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 111-113, provided an account. Mathew and Sen, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 293: 21, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted three larval descriptions in the literature of various levels of completeness (as Bufo scaber). Kuramoto and Joshy, 2008, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 105: 14–18, described the advertisement call from a population in Karnataka, India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 19-21, provided a brief characterization and photographs of a Manipur specimens. de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 64, provided a brief account (as Bufo scaber) and color photograph.  Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 336–348, compared this species with other Duttaphrynus from northeastern India. Srinivasulu, Ganesh, and Srinivasulu, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4789, discussed misidentifications that resulted in this species being thought to occur in South India. Padhye, Pandit, Patil, Gaikwad, Dahanukar, and Shouche, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4579–4585, reported specimens from Gujarat and Maharashtra in western India and also reported on its advertisement call. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 30–31, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala. Mahapatra and Ghorai, 2019, Biol. Forum, Bilaspur, India, 11: 56–60, reported specimens from East and West Medinipur districts of West Bengal, India. Deuti, Sethy, and Ray, 2014, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 114: 123, provided a  brief account for the population of the Andhra Pradesh region,  India. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, discussed the range in Maharashtra, India, in terms of agro-climatic zones. Ganesh, Rameshwaran, Joseph, Jerith, and Dutta, 2020, J. Threatened Taxa, 12: 16272–16278, reported on specimens and briefly on their habitat on the Coromandel coastal plains of northern Tamil Nadu, India. Prasad, Gautam, Gupta, Murthy, Ramesh, Shinde, and Das, 2020, Zootaxa, 4851: 450–476, reported on morphology and advertisement call for a population in the Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, central India.  Jayawardena, Senevirathne, Wijayathilaka, Ukuwela, Manamendra-Arachchi, and Meegaskumbura, 2017, Ceylon J. Sci., 46 (Special issue): 79–87, treated Duttaphrynus atukoralei as a synonym, noting those populations from the wetter southeastern part of the island as a genetically distinctive, and unnamed, unit. 

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