Bombina orientalis (Boulenger, 1890)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bombinatoridae > Genus: Bombina > Species: Bombina orientalis

Bombinator orientalis Boulenger, 1890, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 5: 143. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.25.53–64, 1947.2.25.69, 1947.2.25.70–72, and 1947.2.25.73–76 (formerly 74.1.16.90, 83.3.26.11, 89.12.16.198–200, and 72.1.29.16–17) according to Korotkov, 1972, in Cherepanov (ed.), Zool. Probl. Sibiri: 106. Type localities: "Chefoo [= Yantai, Shandong]...N. China...S.E. coast of Corea...Chabarowka"; given as "Korea" by Gee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 20; restricted to "Chefoo" (= Yantai), Shandong, China, by Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 435. Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 106, discussed the Kharovsk locality and regarded it as erroneous.

Bombina orientalisStejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 51.

Bombina orientalis var. silvatica Korotkov, 1972, in Cherepanov (ed.), Zool. Probl. Sibiri: 302. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: Korean pine-broad-leaved forests across almost the whole to the terrotory of Primorye [Russia]. Status regarded as dubious by Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 109.

Bombina orientalis var. praticola Korotkov, 1972, in Cherepanov (ed.), Zool. Probl. Sibiri: 302. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: Kievka [= Sudzukhe] River mount and Khasa Railway Station near the Bay of Bodunupta, southern Primorye, Russia. Status regarded as dubious by Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 109.

Bombina (Bombina) orientalisTian and Hu, 1985, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 4 (3): 219–224; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 97; Yu, Yang, Zhang, and Rao, 2007, J. Herpetol., 41: 373.

English Names

Oriental Firebelly Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 38).

Red-bellied Toad (Liu, 1931, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 5: 53).

Chinese Bell Toad (Boring, Liu, and Chou, 1932, Handb. N. China, Amph. Rept.: 25; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 51).

Oriental Fire-bellied Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 51; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 206).

Oriental Bell Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 56).

Eastern Fire-bellied Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 51).

Korean Fire-bellied Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 51).

Distribution

Southern part of Russian Far East (Primorye Region and a few localities in the Khabarovskii Region); northeastern China (from northeastern Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang south to southern Liaoning, with one locality in the Beijing area and other records in eastern Shandong and northern Jiangsu) and the entire Korean Peninsula; Tsushima and Kyushu Islands, Japan (although these records likely in error, personal comm., M. Matsui).

Comment

See Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 51, for summary of misapplication of the name Bombinator igneus in the literature to this species. Discussed by Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 36–38, Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China 115, Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 206-212, Kuzmin, 2013, Amph. Former Soviet Union, Ed. 2: 118–121, and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 56, and Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 57-62 (who provided a spot map). Zhao and Bi, 1995, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, 4–5: 102-104, provided a record for Inner Mongolia. Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 48-49, provided a brief account, map and figure for South Korea. Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 105-122, provided an extensive account. Pabijan, Spolsky, Uzzell, and Szymura, 2008, J. Mol. Evol., 67: 246-256, and Zheng, Fu, and Li, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 52: 70-83, presented molecular evidence that suggests that Bombina orientalis is more closely related to European Bombina than to other Asian species. Fidenci, 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 445, provided a record for Jeju Island, South Korea. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 104 provided a brief account including photographs. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 130, provided an account, photographs, and a map. Fong, Li, Yang, Zhou, Leaché, Min, and Waldman, 2016, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 97: 69–75, reported on mtDNA demographics and phylogeography. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 432–413, provided an account, photograph, and range map. Borzée, Groffen, and Seliger, 2018, Herpetol. Rev., 49: 69, provided specific localities in Dem. Rep. Korea and discussed earlier records. Li, Lian, and Lu, 2010, Res. Tadpoles Liaoning: 16–18, described and pictured the larva. Dot map and discussion of status for North Korea provided by Song, 2016, J. Natl. Park Res., Rep. Korea, 7: 211–217. Borzée, Litvinchuk, Ri, Andersen, Nam, Jon, Man, Choe, Kwon, Othman, Messenger, Bae, Shin, Kim, Maslova, Luedtke, Hobin, Moores, Seliger, Glenk, and Jang, 2021, Animals, 11 (2057): 1–37, provided, for P.D.R. Korea, records, a distribution map as well as modeled distributions, life history comments, as well as conservation status. 

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