Bombina Oken, 1816

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bombinatoridae > Genus: Bombina
7 species

Bombina Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 207. Type species: Rana bombina Linnaeus, 1761, by subsequent designation of Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 16, and Opinion 453, Anonymous, 1957, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 15: 347 (which validated Bombina Oken, 1816, although the publication was otherwise considered to be unavailable by Opinion 417 (Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 14: 1–42).

Bombinator Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 178. Type species: Bufo igneus Laurenti, 1768, by subsequent designation of Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 485. Synonymy by Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 166.

Bombitator Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 179. Unjustified emendation of Bombinator Merrem, 1820, evidenced by footnote 4 at bottom of page 206 in Wagler. See Dubois, 1987, Alytes, 6: 43, for discussion.

Glandula Tian and Hu, 1985, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 4 (3): 220, 223. Type species: Bombinator maximus Boulenger, 1905, by original designation. Proposed as a subgenus of Bombina. Preoccupied by Glandula Stimpson, 1852.

Grobina Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 97–98. Replacement name for Glandula Tian and Hu, 1986.

English Names

Firebellied Toads (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 51).

Firebelly Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 38).


Europe, Türkiye, western and eastern Russia (disjunct), China, Korea, and Vietnam.


See comment under Barbourula. Tian and Hu, 1985, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 4 (3): 219–224, recognized two subgenera, Bombina and Glandula. Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 97, noted that Glandula was preoccupied and supplied a replacement name, Grobina. See comment by Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 114, on Bombina. Liu and Yang, 1993, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 5: 137–142, discussed karyology of Chinese species and supported the subgeneric distinction of Bombina and Glandula (now Grobina). See Nöllert, 1996, Naturschutz Rep., 11: 1–260, for summaries of biology and ecology of Bombina variegata, Bombina pachypus, and Bombina bombina in Europe. Herrmann, Kühnel, and Kabisch, 1997, in Böhme et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Bonn.: 161–168, discussed the relationships and interspecific variation of the members of Grobina (Bombina maxima, Bombina microdeladigitora, and Bombina fortinuptialis). Lang, 1988, Brit. Herpetol. Soc. Bull., 26: 6–13, summarized taxonomy and distribution of the species. Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 52–54, provided a key to the species of China. Yu, Yang, Zhang, and Rao, 2007, J. Herpetol., 41: 365–377, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of Bombina. Pabijan, Spolsky, Uzzell, and Szymura, 2008, J. Mol. Evol., 67: 246–256, reported on mitochondrial genomic evolution in Bombina. Zheng, Fu, and Li, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 52: 70–83, also reported on molecular evolution in the taxon and biogeography∂ƒ. See comments on systematics by Guarino, Picariello, and Venchi, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 277–280. Pabijan, Wandycz, Hofman, Węcek, Piwczyński, and Szymura, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 69: 63–74, reported on a phylogenetic analysis of the species within the genus, based on complete mtDNA genomes that rendered a topology of (Bombina maxima + Bombina microdeladigitora) + (Bombina orientalis + (Bombina bombina + Bombina variegata)). Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 426–445, provided accounts, photographs, and range maps for the Chinese species. Barbhuiya , Uddin, and Chakraborty, 2019, J. Mol. Develop. Evol., 332: 99–112, reported on codon usage and provided a molecular tree of relationships of (Bombina fortinuptialis + Bombina lichuanensis + Bombina maxima + Bombina microdeladigitora) + (Bombina bombina + Bombina orientalis + Bombina variega). 

Contained taxa (7 sp.):

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