Thoropa Cope, 1865

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Cycloramphidae > Genus: Thoropa
7 species

Thoropa Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 110. Type species: Cystignathus missiessii Eydoux and Souleyet, 1842, by monotypy.

English Names

River Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 85).


Eastern and southeastern Brazil.


See Bokermann, 1965, An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 37: 325-400, and Cocroft and Heyer, 1988, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 101: 209-220, for discussion and key to species. Resurrected from the synonymy of Eupsophus by Lynch, 1972, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 71: 5, where it had been placed by Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 8: 67, and Myers, 1946, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zool., 55: 11. Considered to be a member of Batrachylini (Telmatobiinae) by Lynch, 1978, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 72: 42, but transferred into the Cycloramphinae by Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 691-693. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 211, placed Thoropa in its own family, Thoropidae, the sister taxon of Dendrobatidae (sensu lato). Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 154, subsequently placed Thoropidae in the synonymy of Cycloramphidae. Fitzpatrick, Brasileiro, Haddad, and Zamudio, 2009, Mol. Ecol., 18: 2877-2896, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Thoropa miliaris complex. Nunes-de-Almeida, Assis, Feio, and Toledo, 2016, PLoS One, 11(9: e0162617): 1–12, reported on vocalizations of the species and mapped the ranges. Sabbag, Lyra, Zamudio, Haddad, Feio, Leite, Gasparini, and Brasileiro, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 122: 142–156, reported on molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the genus and near relatives, suggesting on the basis of Bayesian inference that Thoropa is nonmonophyletic, the bulk of Thoropa species forming the sister taxon of Thoropa lutzi + Cycloramphus + Zachaenus.  de Sá, Haddad, Gray, Verdade, Thomé, Rodrigues, and Zamudio, 2020, Evolution, 74: 459–475, also found Thoropa to be paraphyletic in their ML analysis, with Thoropa lutzi being more closely related to Cycloramphus + Zachaenus, and Thoropa taophora being outside of that group. Dias, Vera Candioti, Sabbag, Colaço, Silva, Haddad, Carvalho-e-Silva, and Grant, 2021, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 59: 1297–1321, reported on the comparative anatomy, systematics, functional morphology, and evolution of semiterrestrial tadpoles in the group. Sabbag, Thomé, Lyra, Brasileiro, Lemmon, Lemmon, and Haddad, 2021 "2022", Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 166 (107220): 1–12, reported on molecular phylogenetics within the genus, detecting several unnamed species within nominal Thoropa miliaris.  

Contained taxa (7 sp.):

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