Minervarya keralensis (Dubois, 1981)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Minervarya > Species: Minervarya keralensis

Rana verrucosa Günther, 1876 "1875", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875: 567. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.28.80–96, according to Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 148. Type locality: "Malabar", India. Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 8, noted the imprecision of this type locality. Preoccupied by Rana temporaria verrucosus Koch, 1872.

Rana (Rana) verrucosaBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 6.

Dicroglossus verrucosusDeckert, 1938, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1938: 138.

Rana (Euphlyctis) keralensis Dubois, 1981 "1980", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 2: 928. Replacement name for Rana verrucosa Günther, 1875.

Rana (Fejervarya) keralensisDubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 148.

Euphlyctis keralensisPoynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 27: 124, by implication.

Limnonectes (Fejervarya) keralensisDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 61.

Fejervarya keralensisIskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 71, by implication; Dubois and Ohler, 2000, Alytes, 18: 35; Fei, Ye, Jiang, and Xie, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 92; Dinesh, Vijayakumar, Channakeshavamurthy, Torsekar, Kulkarni, and Shanker, 2015, Zootaxa, 3999: 79. 

Zakerana keralensisHowlader, 2011, Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 5: 2.

Minervarya keralensis — Sanchez, Biju, Islam, Hasan, Ohler, Vences, and Kurabayashi, 2018, Salamandra, 54: 115. 

English Names

Kerala Wart Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 100).

Kerala Warty Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 65; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 17).

Warty Frog (Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 84 [identification doubtful; see comment).

Dubois' Hill Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 115).

Verrucose Frog (Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 203).

Kerala Cricket Frog (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 4). 


Mountains of Kerala north to Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, possibly to Gujurat, India; doubtfully in northeastern India (see comment).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: India

Endemic: India


See accounts by Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 26, and Inger, Shaffer, Koshy, and Bakde, 1984, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 81: 426. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 87, provided a brief account for West Bengal, India Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 10, and Choudhury, Hussain, Buruah, Saikia, and Sengupta, 2002, Hamadryad, 26: 278, noted some misidentifications from the northern part of the range. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 115–116, provided a brief account (as Rana keralensis).  Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 130, provided range, systematic comments, and a taxonomic bibliography. Kuramoto and Joshy, 2001, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 20: 85–95, reported on the advertisement call, as Limnonectes cf. keralensis. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 203–207, who suggested that records outside of the Western Ghats applied to other species. Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 299, provided a questionable report (as Rana keralensis) for Arunachal Pradesh. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317–324, provided a record (questionable?) for Manipur, northeastern India. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted a few larval descriptions of varying levels of completeness in the literature.Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 48–49, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala. Deuti, Sethy, and Ray, 2014, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 114: 127–128, provided a  brief account for the population of the Andhra Pradesh, India. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, noted that records from Maharashtra, India, are in error. Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 17, regarded the records for Nepal and Gujarat to be doubtful. Khatiwada, Wang, Zhao, Xie, and Jiang, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 1–35, did not include this species in the Nepal fauna so the literature that places this species in that country requires confirmation (e.g., (Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 84). Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 345–370, summarized the systematics (morphology and molecular markers) of this member of the Minervarya nilagirica group and mapped its distribution. 

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