Minervarya mysorensis (Rao, 1922)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Minervarya > Species: Minervarya mysorensis

Rana (Rana) limnocharis mysorensis Rao, 1922, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 28: 439–447. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.1.80 according to Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 136. Type locality: "Water courses in the forests of Jog, Shimoga, Mysore State, 4,000–5,000 feet", Karnataka, India. 

Rana (Tomopterna) parambikulamana Rao, 1937, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Ser. B, 6: 391. Holotype: CCB; now lost according to Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 154. BNHS 6113 designated neotype by Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 354. Type locality: "Parambikulam forests, Cochin State [now part of Kerala], S. India". Neotype from "Parambikulam, Kerala state, India". Synonymy by Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 355. 

Rana (Hylorana) sauriceps Rao, 1937, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Ser. B, 6: 396. Holotype: CCB; now lost according to Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 155; BNHS 6114 designated neotype by Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 357. Type locality: "Wattekole, Coorg [Mysore], S. India". Neotype from the original type locality, now "Watekolli". Synonymy by Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 357.

Rana (Tomopterna) parambikulamana — Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 164.

Rana (Fejervarya) sauriceps — Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 155.

Euphlyctis limnocharis mysorensisPoynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 27: 124, by Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 354 implication.

Limnonectes (Fejervarya) paramkibulamana — Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 61, by implication.

Limnonectes (Fejervarya) sauriceps — Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 61.

Limnonectes mysorensisDutta and Singh, 1996, Zoos' Print J., 11: 15.

Fejervarya mysorensisIskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 71, by implication; Dubois and Ohler, 2000, Alytes, 18: 35; Fei, Ye, Jiang, and Xie, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 93; Dinesh, Vijayakumar, Channakeshavamurthy, Torsekar, Kulkarni, and Shanker, 2015, Zootaxa, 3999: 79. 

Fejervarya sauriceps — Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 71, by implication; Dubois and Ohler, 2000, Alytes, 18: 35; Fei, Ye, Jiang, and Xie, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 93; Dinesh, Vijayakumar, Channakeshavamurthy, Torsekar, Kulkarni, and Shanker, 2015, Zootaxa, 3999: 79. 

Fejervarya parambikulamana — Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 71, by implication; Dubois, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 6; Dubois and Ohler, 2000, Alytes, 18: 35; Fei, Ye, Jiang, and Xie, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 93; Dinesh, Vijayakumar, Channakeshavamurthy, Torsekar, Kulkarni, and Shanker, 2015, Zootaxa, 3999: 79. 

Tomopterna parambikulamana — Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 214.

Sphaerotheca parambikulamana — Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 158.  

Fejervarya kudremukhensis Kuramoto, Joshy, Kurabayashi, and Sumida, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 96. Holotype: BNHS 4653, by original designation. Type locality: "Kudremukh", central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Synonymy by Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 357. 

Minervarya kudremukhensis — Sanchez, Biju, Islam, Hasan, Ohler, Vences, and Kurabayashi, 2018, Salamandra, 54: 115. 

Zakerana mysorensisHowlader, 2011, Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 5: 2.

Zakerana sauriceps — Howlader, 2011, Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 5: 2.

Zakerana kudremukhensis — Howlader, 2011, Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 5: 2.

Zakerana parambikulamana — Howlader, 2011, Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 5: 2.

Fejervarya kudremukhensis —  Dinesh, Vijayakumar, Channakeshavamurthy, Torsekar, Kulkarni, and Shanker, 2015, Zootaxa, 3999: 79. 

Minervarya mysorensis — Sanchez, Biju, Islam, Hasan, Ohler, Vences, and Kurabayashi, 2018, Salamandra, 54: 115. 

Minervarya parambikulamana — Sanchez, Biju, Islam, Hasan, Ohler, Vences, and Kurabayashi, 2018, Salamandra, 54: 115. 

Minervarya sauriceps — Sanchez, Biju, Islam, Hasan, Ohler, Vences, and Kurabayashi, 2018, Salamandra, 54: 115.

English Names

Mysore Frog (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 19).

Parambikulam Wart Frog (Minervarya parambikulamana [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 100).

Parambikulam Frog (Minervarya parambikulamana [no longer recognized}: Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 65; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 21).

Mysore Wart Frog (Minervarya sauriceps [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 100; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 22).

Lizard-headed Frog (Minervarya sauriceps [no longer recognized]: Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 65).

Kudremukh Fejervarya (Minervarya kudremukhensis [no longer recognized]: Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 18).

Distribution

Western Ghats of Karnataka south to Kerala, India. 

Comment

Fejervarya parambikulaman was tentatively removed from Tomopterna by Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 143-159, and considered a synonym of Pyxicephalus rufescens Jerdon, 1853, by Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 163-170. Fejervarya mysorensis was tentatively considered a synonym of Rana nilagirica by Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 154. See Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 61. Rana sauriceps was placed in the subgenus Hylarana according to the original publication, but Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 155, on the basis of the illustration, suggested that it resembled a member of the subgenus Fejervarya.Rana sauriceps was placed in the subgenus Hylarana according to the original publication, but Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 155, on the basis of the illustration, suggested that it resembled a member of the subgenus FejervaryaFejervarya parambikulamana and Fejervarya sauriceps were considered incertae sedis within Fejervarya by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 61, without discussion. Fejervarya mysorensis was removed from the synonymy of Fejervarya limnocharis by Dutta and Singh, 1996, Zoos' Print J., 11: 15, where it had previously resided. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 160-161, provided a range, systematic comments, and partial taxonomic bibliography (as Tomopterna parambikulamana). Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 132, provided a brief account (as Rana sauriceps), and on p. 214, provided a brief account (as Tomopterna parambikulamana). Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions of Fejervarya parambikulamana, or Fejervarya sauriceps in the literature. Fejervarya parambikulamana considered a member of Tomopterna by Matsui, Toda, and Ota, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 73, but without discussing evidence. See comments by Kuramoto, Joshy, Kurabayashi, and Sumida, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 81-105, regarding Fejervarya parambikulamana and Fejervarya mysorensis by Kuramoto, Joshy, Kurabayashi, and Sumida, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 81–105.  Fejervarya sauriceps was considered as "invalid" according to Matsui, Toda, and Ota, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 73, but without associating the name with a known living population. Purkayastha and Matsui, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 3: 32, also reported both Fejervarya parambikulamana and Fejervarya sauriceps as "invalid". Very brief characterizations (as Fejervarya kudremukhensis, Fejervarya mysorensis, and Fejervarya paramikulamana) and dot maps provided by Subramanian, Dinesh, and Radhakrishnan, 2013, Atlas of Endemic Amph. W. Ghats: 45, 50, 52. Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 345–370, addressed the systematics of this species. 

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