Minervarya rufescens (Jerdon, 1853)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Minervarya > Species: Minervarya rufescens

Pyxicephalus rufescens Jerdon, 1853, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 22: 534. Type(s): Not stated but presumably originally in the ZSIC; reported as lost by Jerdon, 1870, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1870: 67; apparently lost from ZSIC according to Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 15, who designated MNHNP 1984.2348 neotype. Type locality: "Malabar Coast", South India; neotype is from Gundia, Kemphole Forest, west of Sakleshpur, Karnataka, India.

Rana rufescensBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 29.

Rana (Tomopterna) rufescensBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 102; Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 164.

Rana (Fejervarya) rufescensDubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 149.

Limnonectes (Fejervarya) rufescensDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 61.

Tomopterna rufescensDas and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 66.

Fejervarya rufescensIskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 71, by implication; Dubois, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 6; Dubois and Ohler, 2000, Alytes, 18: 35; Fei, Ye, Jiang, and Xie, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 92; Dinesh, Vijayakumar, Channakeshavamurthy, Torsekar, Kulkarni, and Shanker, 2015, Zootaxa, 3999: 79. 

Sphaerotheca rufescens — Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 158.

Zakerana rufescensHowlader, 2011, Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 5: 2.

Minervarya rufescens — Sanchez, Biju, Islam, Hasan, Ohler, Vences, and Kurabayashi, 2018, Salamandra, 54: 115. 

English Names

Malabar Wart Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 100).

Reddish Burrowing Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 66; Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 248; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 22).

Rufescent Burrowing Frog (Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 248; Garg and Biju, 2017, Zootaxa, 4277: 467).

Rufescens Cricket Frog (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 4). 


Restricted to Karnataka and adjoining regions in Kerala, north of the Palghat gap in the Western Ghats of southern India; genetically confirmed from Manipal and Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary (Udupi district), and Guddekere, Agumbe reserve forest (Shimoga district) in Karnataka; and Peruvannamuzhi and Pozhuthana (Wayanad district) in Kerala.  

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: India

Endemic: India


See account by Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 102. Kadadevaru, Kanamadi, and Schneider, 2000, Amphibia-Reptilia, 21: 242–246,  reported on the advertisement call (as Tomopterna rufescens). Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 145, 214–215, provided a brief account (as Tomopterna rufescens). Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 171–172, provided a range, systematic comments, and partial taxonomic bibliography (as Tomopterna rufescens). Kuramoto and Dubois, 2009, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 28: 65–70, reported the advertisement call. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 248–249, provided an account (as Tomopterna rufescens). Considered a member of Tomopterna by Matsui, Toda, and Ota, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 73, but without discussing evidence. Kuramoto, Joshy, Kurabayashi, and Sumida, 2008 "2007", Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 26: 81–105, discussed the species and considered it to be phylogenetically within Fejervarya and noted that the Karnataka and Kerala populations were significantly genetically divergent. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions in the literature (as Sphaerotheca rufescens). Kotaki, Kurabayashi, Matsui, Khonsue, Tjong, Tandon, and Sumida, 2008, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 25: 381–390, considered this species to be in their Fejervarya syhadrensis group. A very brief characterization (as Fejervarya rufescens), photograph, and dot map provided by Subramanian, Dinesh, and Radhakrishnan, 2013, Atlas of Endemic Amph. W. Ghats: 53. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 50–51, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala. See account by  Garg and Biju, 2017, Zootaxa, 4277: 467–472, who redelimited the species, and named other species from within this complex, the Fejervarya rufescens species complex, requiring that earlier literature be used cautiously. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, noted that records from Maharashtra, India, are in error. Patel and Vyas, 2020, J. Anim. Diversity, 2: 12, noted that records from Gujarat, India, are based on misidentifications. Garg and Biju, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 345–370, summarized the systematics of this member of the Minervarya rufescens group and mapped its distribution.  

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