Ingerana borealis (Annandale, 1912)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Occidozyginae > Genus: Ingerana > Species: Ingerana borealis

Micrixalus borealis Annandale, 1912, Rec. Indian Mus., 8: 10. Holotype: ZSIC 16932, by original designation. Type locality: "about 3 miles S. of Yembung", Arunachal Pradesh, India (in an area claimed by Tibet, China). See Chanda, Das, and Dubois, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 106–107, for discussion of the type locality. 

Occidozyga borealisDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 245, by implication; Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 242.

Phrynoglossus borealis — Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 52, 59; Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315; Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Herpetol. Sinica, 12: 30. See comment under Dicroglossidae.

Ingerana borealisSailo, Lalremsanga, Hooroo, and Ohler, 2009, Alytes, 27: 1–12.

English Names

Rotung Oriental Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 104; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 37; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 49).

Rotung Frog (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 45).

Northern Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 65: Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 49).

Northern Trickle Frog (Reza, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 235; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 39).

Northern Tricklefrog (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 25).

Boreal Floating Frog (Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 491). 


Lower elevations along the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas in southeastern Tibet (China), Bhutan, as well as adjacent West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, and Nagaland, northeastern India, to Cox's Bazaar District, Bangladesh, 1500–3000 m elevation; Chin, Sagaing, and Rakhine states in adjacent Myanmar.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, People's Republic of, India, Myanmar


Closely allied to Ingerana tenasserimensis (as Micrixalus), according to the original publication. Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 136, noted this species in China. See accounts (as Micrixalus borealis) by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 301; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 230. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 57, provided a brief account (as Micrixalus borealis). This species should be examined as part of the problem of Ingerana polyphyly (DRF). Ao, Bordoloi, and Ohler, 2003, Zoos' Print J., 18: 1117–1125, provided a specific locality for Nagaland, northeastern India. Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 300, provided a brief report (as Micrixalus borealis) for Arunachal Pradesh. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317–324, provided a record (as Micrixalus borealis) for Manipur, northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2003, Cobra, Chennai, 53: 1–4, reported this species (as Micrixalus borealis) for Meghalaya, India. Reza, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 235, provided the first record for Bangladesh. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 489. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 630. Sailo, Lalremsanga, Hooroo, and Ohler, 2009, Alytes, 27: 1–12 justifed the transfer to Ingerana from Occidozyga and reported the species from Mizoram, India. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptionsin the literature.  Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 39, provided a brief account (as Occidozyga borealis) for northeastern India. Wogan, Vindum, Wilkinson, Koo, Slowinski, Win, Thin, Kyi, Oo, Lwin, and Shein, 2008, Hamadryad, 33: 86, provided the first records for Chin and Rakhine states in Myanmar. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 45–46, provided a brief characterization (as Occidozyga borealis) and photograph. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 3: 1592–1594, provided an account (as Phrynoglossus borealis), figures, and range map for China. Mahony, Hasan, Kabir, Ahmed, and Hossain, 2009, Hamadryad, 34: 80–94, discussed the range in Bangladesh and suggested that the nominal species is a complex. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 419, provided a brief account (as Phrynoglossus borealis) including photographs. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 49–50, provided an account for Xizang, China, as Occidozyga borealis. Hasan, Khalilullah, and Feeroz, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 385, provided a range extension to Cox's Bazaar District, Bangladesh, and discussed the range. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 491, provided an account (as Phrynoglossus borealis), photographs, and a range map for China. Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 12, considered the presence of this species in Sikkim, India, to be doubtful. Che, Jiang, Yan, and Zhang, 2020, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 298–303, provided a detailed account for Tibet, China. Ahmad and Mim, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 27: 36–41, reported specimens from the Bandarban District, southeastern Bangladesh.  Khatiwada, Wang, Zhao, Xie, and Jiang, 2021, Asian Herpetol. Res., 12: 1–35, did not include this species in the Nepal fauna. Decemson, Gouda, Lalbiakzuala, Lalmuansanga, Hmar, Mathipi, and Lalremsanga, 2021, J. Threatened Taxa, 13: 17918–17929, provided the record for Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mamit District, Mizoram, India. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 25, briefly discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. 

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