Occidozyga baluensis (Boulenger, 1896)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Occidozyginae > Genus: Occidozyga > Species: Occidozyga baluensis

Oreobatrachus baluensis Boulenger, 1896, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 17: 401. Holotype: BMNH, by original designation, this being BMNH 1947.2.4.38 (originally numbered 1895.11.7.81) according to museum records. Type locality: "Mount Kina Balu, North Borneo [= Sabah]", Malaysia (Borneo).

Phrynoglossus baluensisSmith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 15; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59.

Ooeidozyga baluensisInger, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 401.

Occidozyga baluensisDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 245, by implication; Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 242.

Phrynoglossus baluensisDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59; Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Herpetol. Sinica, 12: 30; Köhler, Vargas, Than, Schell, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 71: 7. 

English Names

Balu Oriental Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 104).

Seep Frog (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 152; Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 57).


Northern and central Borneo (Malaysia [Sarawak and Sabah], Brunei, and Kalimantan, Indonesia), 65–1200 m elevation. See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah)


See accounts by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 238–239, and Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 155–157. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 152, provided a brief description. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 630, who questioned the Sumatran component of the range. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 57, provided a photograph and brief account. Haas, Pohlmeyer, McLeod, Kleinteich, Hertwig, Das, and Buchholz, 2014, Zoomorphology, 133: 321–342, discussed the detailed anatomy of the larva. Gillespie, Ahmad, and Shia, 2021, Field Guide Frog Lower Kinabatangan Region Sabah: 20, provided a brief account, summarizing identification and life history in the Lower Kinabatangan Region, Sabah, Malaysia. Flury, Haas, Brown, Das, Min, Kueh, Scheidt, Iskandar, Jankowski, and Hertwig, 2021, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 163 (107210): 1–17, found their baluensis group to be in their dataset composed of at least three mt + nuDNA lineages: (1) from Poring Hot Spring, Sabah; (2) Gunung Mulu, Sarawak; (3) central Sarawak (Bintulu and Pelagus); and possibly (4), evidence only by mtDNA from western and eastern Sabah to northern Sarawak. It is unclear what lineage is at the type locality, if any of these. What is reasonably clear is that nominal Occidozyga baluensis is a species complex 9DRF). Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 278–280, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration. 

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