Occidozyga Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Occidozyginae > Genus: Occidozyga
13 species

Occidozyga Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822, Algemeene Konst-en Letter-Bode, 7: 103. Type species: Rana lima Gravenhorst, 1829, by subsequent designation of Stejneger, 1925, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 66: 33.

OoeidozygaKuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822, Isis von Oken, 10: 475. Incorrect subsequent spelling according to Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 245, and Dubois, 1982, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 4: 269-272.

OccidogynaGray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 215. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Occidozyga Kuhl and Hasselt, 1822.

Houlema Gray, 1831, Zool. Misc., Part 1: 38. Type species: Houlema obscura Gray, 1831, by monotypy. Synonymy by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 245.

Oxyglossus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 48. Type species: Rana lima Gravenhorst, 1829, by monotypy. Synonymy by Stejneger, 1925, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 66: 33.

OxydozygaTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 85. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Occidozyga Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822.

Rhomboglossus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 332. Substitute name for Oxyglossus Tschudi, 1838.

Phrynoglossus Peters, 1867, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1867: 29. Type species: Phrynoglossus martensii Peters, 1867, by monotypy. 

Microdiscopus Peters, 1877, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877: 421. Type species: Microdiscopus sumatranus Peters, 1877, by monotypy. Synonymy with Occidozyga by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 5 (although O'Shaughnessy, 1879, Zool. Rec., 14: 12, suggested that Microdiscopus and Oxyglossus "correspond closely"). Transfer of synonym to Phrynoglossus by Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Herpetol. Sinica, 12: 30. 

Oreobatrachus Boulenger, 1896, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 17: 401. Type species: Oreobatrachus baluensis Boulenger, 1896. Synonymy with Phrynoglossus by Smith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 16. See comment. 

OxyglossisSmith, 1916, J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2: 164. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Osteosternum Wu, 1929, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc., China, Zool. Ser., 5: 3. Type species: Osteosternum amoyense Wu, 1929, by original designation. Synonymy by Smith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 16.

Frethia Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 243. Type species: Oxyglossus laevis Günther, 1859. See comment. 

English Names

Java Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 102).

Oriental Frogs (Phrynoglossus [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 104).

Distribution

West Bengal (India) through Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos, to southern China (southern Yunnan, southern Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, to southern Jiangxi, and eastern Fujian), Vietnam, to Malaya (Malaysia) and into the Greater Sundas, Bali, and Philippines. 

Comment

In the subfamily Occidozyginae Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, according to Dubois, Ohler, and Biju, 2001, Alytes, 19: 55. Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59, resurrected Phrynoglossus from synonymy and recognized two species groups noted in the accounts: the Phrynoglossus laevis group (including Phrynoglossus baluensis, Phrynoglossus celebensis, Phrynoglossus floresianus, Phrynoglossus laevis, Phrynoglossus magnapustulosus, Phrynoglossus martensii, Phrynoglossus semipalmatus, and possibly Phrynoglossus vittatus) and the Phrynoglossus borealis group (including Phrynoglossus borealis and Occidozyga diminutivus). Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 241-246, discussed inconsistencies in the diagnosis of Phrynoglossus, replaced it in the synonymy of Occidozyga, and noted that the species Occidozyga lima (in Occidozyga of Dubois) and Occidozyga baluensis, Occidozyga celebensis, Occidozyga laevis, and Occidozyga semipalmatus (all in Phrynoglossus sensu Dubois) likely formed a monophyletic group. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 243, confirmed the synonymy of Phrynoglossus and Occidozyga, as did Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 558. Köhler, Vargas, Than, Schell, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 71: 1–26, discussed and redelimited the generic boundaries of Phrynoglossus and Occidozyga on the basis of morphology and an mtDNA tree that differs significantly from the more data-heavy, but terminal-lighter, tree of Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 558. Previously, Phrynoglossus was considered a junior synonym of Occidozyga by Stoliczka, 1872, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1872: 101; Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 243; and Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 243. Zug, Mulcahy, Vindum, and Wilkinson, 2018, Alytes, 36: 272, briefly discussed five cryptic lineages of nominal Phrynoglossus found in Tanintharyi Province, peninsular Myanmar. Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 1–738, based on what is probably nearly the same dataset as studied by Pyron and Wiens (2011), a substantially larger dataset than employed by Köhler et al. (2021), came to very different phylogenetic conclusions and recognized two other genera (Frethia and Oreobatrachus) besides Phrynoglossus and Occidozyga, rendering by their lights a monophyletic classification. Inasmuch as retaining everything in Occidozyga also provides a monophyletic classification, DRF retains the older classification in order to let the water settle a bit and see how the community responds to the three alternative classifications. See Occidozyginae and Occidozyga records for relevant literature. 

Contained taxa (13 sp.):

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