Occidozyga Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Occidozyginae > Genus: Occidozyga
2 species

Occidozyga Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822, Algemeene Konst-en Letter-Bode, 7: 103. Type species: Rana lima Gravenhorst, 1829, by subsequent designation of Stejneger, 1925, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 66: 33.

OoeidozygaKuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822, Isis von Oken, 10: 475. Incorrect subsequent spelling according to Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 245, and Dubois, 1982, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 4: 269-272.

OccidogynaGray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 215. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Occidozyga Kuhl and Hasselt, 1822.

Houlema Gray, 1831, Zool. Misc., Part 1: 38. Type species: Houlema obscura Gray, 1831, by monotypy. Synonymy by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 245.

Oxyglossus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 48. Type species: Rana lima Gravenhorst, 1829, by monotypy. Synonymy by Stejneger, 1925, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 66: 33.

OxydozygaTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 85. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Occidozyga Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822.

Rhomboglossus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 332. Substitute name for Oxyglossus Tschudi, 1838.

OxyglossisSmith, 1916, J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2: 164. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Osteosternum Wu, 1929, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc., China, Zool. Ser., 5: 3. Type species: Osteosternum amoyense Wu, 1929, by original designation. Synonymy by Smith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 16.

English Names

Java Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 102).


West Bengal (India) through Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos, to southern China (southern Yunnan, southern Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, to southern Jiangxi, and eastern Fujian), Vietnam, to Malaya (Malaysia) and Java and Bali, Indonesia.


In the subfamily Occidozyginae Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, according to Dubois, Ohler, and Biju, 2001, Alytes, 19: 55. Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59, resurrected Phrynoglossus from synonymy and recognized two species groups noted in the accounts: the Phrynoglossus laevis group (including Phrynoglossus baluensis, Phrynoglossus celebensis, Phrynoglossus floresianus, Phrynoglossus laevis, Phrynoglossus magnapustulosus, Phrynoglossus martensii, Phrynoglossus semipalmatus, and possibly Phrynoglossus vittatus) and the Phrynoglossus borealis group (including Phrynoglossus borealis and Occidozyga diminutivus). Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 241-246, discussed inconsistencies in the diagnosis of Phrynoglossus, replaced it in the synonymy of Occidozyga, and noted that the species Occidozyga lima (in Occidozyga of Dubois) and Occidozyga baluensis, Occidozyga celebensis, Occidozyga laevis, and Occidozyga semipalmatus (all in Phrynoglossus sensu Dubois) likely formed a monophyletic group. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 243, confirmed the synonymy of Phrynoglossus and Occidozyga, as did Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 558. Köhler, Vargas, Than, Schell, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 71: 1–26, discussed and redelimited the generic boundaries of Phrynoglossus and Occidozyga on the basis of morphology and an mtDNA tree that differs significantly from the more data-heavy, but terminal-lighter, tree of Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 558. 

Contained taxa (2 sp.):

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