Occidozyga laevis (Günther, 1858)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Occidozyginae > Genus: Occidozyga > Species: Occidozyga laevis

Oxyglossus laevis Günther, 1858, Arch. Naturgesch., 24: 319. Syntypes: BMNH (2 specimens, according to Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 7), only one of which is currently identified as BMNH 1947.2.4.65, by museum records. Type locality: "Philippinen".

Phrynoglossus laevisPeters, 1867, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1867: 29; Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 353–358; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59; Smith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 16; Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Herpetol. Sinica, 12: 30. See comment under Dicroglossidae; Köhler, Vargas, Than, Schell, Janke, Pauls, and Thammachoti, 2021, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 71: 7.

Oxyglossis laevisSmith, 1916, J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 2: 172. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the generic name.

Oxyglossus laevisBourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 264.

Oxydozyga laevisMertens, 1927, Senckenb. Biol., 9: 242.

Ooeidozyga laevisSmith, 1927, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1927: 204.

Oxydozyga laevis laevisMertens, 1930, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 42: 209.

Phrynoglossus laevis laevisMertens, 1934, Arch. Hydrobiol., Stuttgart, 40: 682.

Ooeidozyga laevis laevisInger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 249; Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 240.

Occidozyga laevisDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 245, by implication; Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 242.

Frethia laevis — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 243.

English Names

Philippine Oriental Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 104).

Common Puddle Frog (Kiew, 1987, Malayan Nat. J., 41: 418).

Spotted Puddle Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 122).

Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 23; Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 152).


Philippines (islands of Alabat, Balabac, Batan, Bohol, Bonoon, Busuanga, Cagraray, Calagna-an, Calauit, Camaguin-Sur, Catanduanes, Cebu, Coron, Dinagat, Guimaras, Inampulugan, Leyte, Lubang, Luzon, Marinduque, Masbates, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Romblon Island group, Samar, Sicogon, Subayan, and Sulu Archipelago). Unnamed associated species found in Indonesia and Malaysia. See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Philippines

Endemic: Philippines


Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 249–256, provided an account. Previously confused with Occidozyga sumatrana; see comment under that taxon. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Gaulke, 2011, Herpetofauna Panay Island: 89–91, provided a brief account (as Occidozyga laevis) for Panay Island, Philippines. Binaday, 2017, Herpetol. Rev., 48: 385, provided a record for Batan, Philippines, and briefly discussed the range. See brief notes for Mindanao, Philippines, by Sanguila, Cobb, Siler, Diesmos, Alcala, and Brown, 2016, ZooKeys, 624: 31. The identity of the call reported as this species from Thailand by Heyer, 1971, Fieldiana, Zool., 58: 61–82, is unknown. The records of Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 137, from Songkhla, Pattani and Narathiwat, peninsular Thailand, presumably are assignable to Occidozyga martensii. Chan, Schoppe, Rico, and Brown, 2020, Philipp. J. Syst. Biol., 14: 1–14, reported on molecular phylogeography in the Philippines, identifying two candidate species on Palawan, within nominal Occidozyga laevisFlury, Haas, Brown, Das, Min, Kueh, Scheidt, Iskandar, Jankowski, and Hertwig, 2021, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 163 (107210): 1–17, found their laevis group to be composed of 11 mtDNA lineages, one from Palawan, Philippines; three from Borneo, and 7 from the remainder of the Philippine archipelago, of which all but one are supported by nuDNA. Which, if any of these is represented by the surviving syntype in the BMNH is unknown. Chan, Hutter, Wood, Su, and Brown, 2022, Syst. Biol., 71: 40–57, reported on gene flow among populations and its influence on estimates of cryptic species in the Philippines. Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 284–285, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration of Occidozyga aff. laevis from Borneo. Meneses, Siler, Alviola, Balatibat, Gonzalez, Natividad, and Brown, 2022, Check List, 18: 941–984, discussed its habitat on Sibuyan I, Philippines. Herlambang, Riyanto, Munir, Hamidy, Kimura, Eto, and Mumpuni, 2022, Treubia, 49: 78, reported Occidozyga cf. laevis from Bunguran I., Natuna Is., Indonesia.

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