Pleurodema brachyops (Cope, 1869)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Leptodactylidae > Subfamily: Leiuperinae > Genus: Pleurodema > Species: Pleurodema brachyops

Physodes albiventris Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 52. Type(s): MSNM Am 859, according to Blackburn and Scali, 2014, Herpetol. Monogr., 28: 40. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger and Tschudi, presumably label names. See discussion and synonymy by Blackburn and Scali, 2014, Herpetol. Monogr., 28: 40. 

Pleurodema elegans Steindachner, 1863, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 48: 186. Syntypes: NHMW 4432.1–5, according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 31. Type locality: "Lachen bei Forte [= Forte São Joaquim]de Rio branco", Roraima, Brazil. Primary homonym of Pleurodema elegans Bell, 1843. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 232. Junior objective homonym of Pleurodema elegans Bell, 1843. 

Lystris brachyops Cope, 1869 "1868", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 312. Syntypes: ANSP 2260ˆ64, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 349. Type locality: "Magdalena River, New Grenada [= Colombia]".

Pleurodema sachsi Peters, 1877, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877: 460. Holotype: ZMB 9094 according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 46. Type locality: "San Fernando de Apure", Venezuela. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 232.

Paludicola brachyopsBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 232.

Pleurodema brachyopsRuthven, 1922, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 8: 53; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 499; Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 88.

Paludicola sachsiStejneger, 1933, Medd. Zool. Mus. Oslo, 40: 48.

English Names

Colombian Four-eyed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

Stout Four-eyed Frog (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 14). 


Guyana and northern Brazil (Roraima) through Venezuela (including Isla Margarita) and northern Colombia into Panama in dry llanos and savanna areas; also introduced into Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire, Klein Bonaire, and St. Martin in the Netherlands Antilles.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Aruba, Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Panama, Venezuela

Introduced: Bonaire, Curaçao, Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten


See accounts by Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 88; and Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 483–486. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 80, discussed range with special reference to Venezuela. Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 49, commented on the Venezuelan range. Ugueto and Rivas-Fuenmayor, 2010, Amph. Rep. Margarita Coche Cubagua: 77–79, provided an account for the population on the Venezuelan island of Margarita. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 429, for brief account and records for Guyana. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 274–275, provided a brief summary of natural history, photograph, and range map for Central America. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 99–100, for comments on range (with special reference to Venezuela) and literature. See brief comments on range and natural history by Batista, Hertz, Ponce, and Lotzkat, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 219–229. Hernández-Palma, Rueda-Solano, and Rojas, 2020, Catal. Anf. Rept. Colombia, Medellín, 6: 27–35, provided a detailed literature review and account for Colombia, including photographs, map, and natural history. Janse, Schotsmans, Yokoyama, Chalifour, and van Wagensveld, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 27: 251–252, noted an introduced population on St. Martin, Netherlands Antilles. 

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