Leptobrachium hasseltii Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Leptobrachiinae > Genus: Leptobrachium > Species: Leptobrachium hasseltii

Leptobrachium hasseltii Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 81. Syntypes: RMNH 2014–2015; RMNH 2015 designed lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 16. Type locality: "Java", Indonesia.

Rana hasseltiiTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 81; Schlegel, 1858, Handl. Dierkd., 2: 56.

Leptobrachium hasseltiiGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 36; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 441; Berry and Hendrickson, 1963, Copeia, 1963: 647.

Nireus pulcherrimus Theobald, 1880, in Spearman (ed.), British Burma Gazeteer, 1: 638. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Burma. Synonymy by Mason, 1882, Burma, Ed. 3: 293. (Very unlikely to be a genuine synonym of Leptobrachium hasseltii—DRF.)

Leptobrachium hasseltiVan Kampen, 1905, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 712.

Megalophrys hasseltiiBoulenger, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1908: 425.

Megophrys hasseltiCochran, 1926, J. Washington Acad. Sci., 16: 447; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 54.

Leptobrachium (Megalophrys) hasseltiBourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 260.

Megophrys hasseltiiGee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 20; Smith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 30; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 450.

Megophrys hasseltii hasseltiiBourret, 1937, Annexe Bull. Gen. Instr. Publique, Hanoi, 1937: 18.

Vibrissaphora hasseltiiLiu, Hu, Fei, and Huang, 1973, Acta Zool. Sinica, 19: 394–395.

Leptobrachium (Leptobrachium) hasseltiiDubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 476; Dubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 24; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 12.

English Names

Java Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 85).

Hasselt's Litter Frog (Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 36–37; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 39).

Tschudi's Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 7).

Red-legged Crawl Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 75—possibly based on Micryletta inornata, see comment).


Java, Madura, and Bali to Kangean Island, Indonesia; records for Hainan I. (China), China and Myanmar south to Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines apply to other or unnamed species (see comment).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Indonesia

Endemic: Indonesia


See accounts of this and related species under this name by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 211–214; Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 312–316; Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 29–37; and Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 213–216 (as Megophrys hasselti). See also Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 450–453, and Berry and Hendrickson, 1963, Copeia, 1963: 643–648. See comment under Leptobrachium hendricksoni. Records from Fujian and Guangdong (China) are referable to Leptobrachium liui (SH). See Inger, Stuebing, and Tan, 1995, Raffles Bull. Zool., 43: 125, for reassignment of Bornean specimens to Leptobrachium abbotti and Leptobrachium montanum. See discussion by Dubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 16. Matsui, Nabhitabhata, and Panha, 1999, Japan. J. Herpetol., 18: 19–29, suggested that "true" Leptobrachium hasseltii is restricted to Bali and Java and that the other populations assigned to this name from northeastern India to the Philippines conform to other named and unnamed species (e.g., Leptobrachium lumadorum, Leptobrachium mangyanorum, and Leptobrachium tagbanorumIskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 36–37, provided an account and noted that the species is actually restricted to Madura, Bali and some neighboring islands of Java to Kangean Island, Indonesia, having been previously confused with other species such as Leptobrachium pullum, Leptobrachium hendricksoni, Leptobrachium abbotti, and Leptobrachium montanum. See identification table by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 68–69, to compare this species with other megophryids in the Sunda Shelf region. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 82, commented on the range of this species. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 76, provided a brief characterization, but unfortunately pictured an individual of Micryletta inornata according to Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 101. McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 31, provided a brief account and photograph. Shi, 2011, Amph. Rept. Fauna Hainan: 38–40, provided an account for a related population on Hainan as Leptobrachium hasseltiiKirono, Kusrini, and Mulyani, 2015, Media Konservasi , 20: 269–276, reported on the vocal repertoire. Hamidy and Matsui, 2017, Treubia, 44: 15–28, suggested on the basis of mtDNA analysis that the population on Bali likely constitutes a distinct species from those on Java + Sumatra. See brief account for East Java by Amin, 2020, Frogs of East Java: 43–46. Eprilurahman and Maghfiroh, 2020, AIP Conf. Proc., 2260 (020023): 1–5, reported on larval morphology. In the Leptobrachium (Leptobrachium) hasseltii complex of Al-Razi, Maria, and Poyarkov, 2021, J. Nat. Hist., London, 55: 85–114, who reported on molecular systematics. Badriah, Wahyuni, Usman, Mahrawi, Ratnasari, and Rifqiawati, 2022, Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, 13 (3): 1–8, reported specimens from Ujong Kulon National Park, extreme western Java, Indonesia. Fauzan, Farajallah, and Hamidy, 2023, Treubia, 50: 89–110, reported on morphological differentia among Indonesian species.  

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.