Pelobatrachus baluensis (Boulenger, 1899)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Megophryinae > Genus: Pelobatrachus > Species: Pelobatrachus baluensis

Leptobrachium baluense Boulenger, 1899, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 7, 4: 453. Holotype: BMNH, by original designation; BMNH 1947.2.25.20 (originally 1899.8.19.15) by museum records. Type locality: "Mount Kina Balu, 4200 feet", Malaysia (Borneo).

Megalophrys baluensisBoulenger, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1908: 429.

Megophrys baluensisSmith, 1931, Bull. Raffles Mus., 5: 30; Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 413.

Megophrys (Megophrys) baluensisDubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 472.

Panophrys baluensisRao and Yang, 1997, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 7: 98–99. Tentative arrangement.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) baluensisDubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 14.

Xenophrys baluensisOhler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23, by implication; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 17.

Megophrys (Pelobatrachus) baluensis — Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 754. 

Pelobatrachus baluensis — Lyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 39.

English Names

Balu Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86).

Kinabalu Horned Frog (Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 625).


Northeastern Borneo in Sabah (Gunung Kinabalu and the Crocker Range), Malaysia, 1200–1900 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah)

Endemic: Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah)


Reviewed by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 46–48. See identification table by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 68–69, to compare this species with other megophryids in the Sunda Shelf region. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 106–108, noted that this species is likely restricted to Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, records for Brunei pertaining to other species. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 625.

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