Xenophrys glandulosa (Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Megophryinae > Genus: Xenophrys > Species: Xenophrys glandulosa

English Names

Jingdong Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86).

Glandular Horned Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 108; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 42; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 54).

Glandular White-lipped Horned Frog (Mahony, Kamei, Teeling, and Biju, 2018, Zootaxa, 4523: 67). 

White-lipped Horned Toadfrog (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 28). 


Elevations of 1900–2100 m in western Yunnan, southwestern China, and in northern Kachin state, Myanmar; reports from northeastern India considered unreliable and the record from eastern Bhutan to be incorrect (see comment). 


Redescribed by Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1992, Zool. Res., Kunming, 13: 5. Original description translated into English by Huang, Lathrop, and Murphy, 1998, Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv., 118. Considered conspecific with Megophrys lateralis by Yang, Liu, Rao, and He, 1994, Zool. Res., Kunming, 15: 124–130. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 108-109, provided a brief account, map, and figure. Fei and Ye, 2000, Cultum Herpetol. Sinica, 8: 59–63, discussed the distinctiveness of this taxon. Jiang, Yuan, Xie, and Zheng, 2003, Zool. Res., Kunming, 24: 241–248, suggested that this species might warrant a new generic name to prevent Brachytarsophrys and Atympanophrys from rendering Megophrys paraphyletic.. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions in the literature. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 363–370, provided an account, illustration of the holotype, and spot map for China. Wogan, Vindum, Wilkinson, Koo, Slowinski, Win, Thin, Kyi, Oo, Lwin, and Shein, 2008, Hamadryad, 33: 84, provided the first record for Kachin state, Myanmar. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 189, provided a brief account including photographs. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 222, provided an account, photographs, and a range map for China. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1 : 617–619, provided an account, photograph, and dot map for China, as Liuophrys glandulosa. See account by Mahony, Kamei, Teeling, and Biju, 2018, Zootaxa, 4523: 64–67, who redelimited the species and range and noted misidentifications in the literature, including those by Ao, Bordoloi, and Ohler, 2003, Zoos' Print J., 18: 1117–1125, who provided a specific locality for Nagaland, northeastern India; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 54–55, who provided a brief characterization and photograph. Presumably the records for Nagaland and Meghalaya, northeastern India by Kharkongor, Saikia, and Deb, 2018, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 118: 48, are suspect as well. Wangyal, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4777, provided a record from Trashiyangtse District, eastern Bhutan (subsequently identified as Megophrys robusta by Mahony, Kamei, Teeling, and Biju, 2018, Zootaxa, 4523: 67). In the Xenophrys major group of Lyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 9–40. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 28, briefly discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.