Xenophrys Günther, 1864

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Subfamily: Megophryinae > Genus: Xenophrys
31 species

Xenophrys Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 414. Type species: Xenophrys monticola Günther, 1864, by monotypy. 

Xenophrys — Khonsue and Thirakhupt, 2001, Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ., 1: 75; Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23; Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2017, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 106: 42. Treatment as a genus.

Liuophrys Fei, Ye, and Jiang in Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1 : 614. Type species: Megophrys glandulosa Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990.  

Grillitschia Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 133. Type species: Megophrys longipes Boulenger, 1885. 

English Names

Strange-horned Toad (Qi, Lyu, Wang, Mo, Zeng, Zeng, Dai, Li, Grismer, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 5072: 430). 

Distribution

Nepal and Bhutan as well as southeastern Xizang (China) easter through northern Bangladesh, northeastern India and adjacent Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, northern Vietnam, Cambodia, and southern China (north to Hunan, east to Jiangxi and south to Yunnan and Guangdong), and south to peninsular Malaysia.

Comment

See comments under Megophryidae and MegophrysKhonsue and Thirakhupt, 2001, Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ., 1: 75, Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23, and Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 6–21, had recognized Xenophrys but the earlier concept was shown by Li, Guo, and Wang, 2011, Curr. Zool., Chengdu, 57: 93–100, to be strongly paraphyletic. Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 744–771, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of Megophryinae, recognizing five monophyletic species groups within Xenophrys: (1) Xenophrys aceras group; (2) Xenophrys lekaguli group; (3) Xenophrys megacephala group; (4) Xenophrys major group; and (5) Xenophrys vegrandis group. Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2017, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 106: 28–43, provided a detailed molecular study of phylogeny and also recognized a monophyletic XenophrysLyu, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Huang, Li, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 4927: 9–40, also provided an molecular phylogenetic tree. The species groups of Mahony et al (2017) were  reported and additional species included by Qi, Lyu, Wang, Mo, Zeng, Zeng, Dai, Li, Grismer, and Wang, 2021, Zootaxa, 5072: 430, who recognized and augmented  the species groups of Mahony et al. (2017): (1) Xenophrys aceras group (Xenophrys aceras and Xenophrys longipes); (2) Xenophrys lekaguli group (Xenophrys lekaguli, Xenophrys parva, and Xenophrys takensis); (3) Xenophrys megacephala group (Xenophrys ancrae, Xenophrys awuh, Xenophrys dzukou, Xenophrys megacephala, Xenophrys numhbumaeng, Xenophrys oropedion, Xenophrys serchhipii, and Xenophrys zunhebotoensis); (4) Xenophrys major group (Xenophrys flavipunctata, Xenophrys glandulosa, Xenophrys himalayana, Xenophrys major, Xenophrys mangshanensis, Xenophrys maosonensis, Xenophrys medogensis, Xenophrys monticola, Xenophrys oreocrypta, Xenophrys periosa, Xenophrys robusta, and Xenophrys zhangi); and (5) Xenophrys vegrandis group (Xenophrys vegrandis, Xenophrys yeae, and Xenophrys zhoui). Xenophrys auralensis, Xenophrys damrei, and Xenophrys pachyproctus were unassigned to species group.  

Contained taxa (31 sp.):

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.