Gastrophryne carolinensis (Holbrook, 1835)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Gastrophryninae > Genus: Gastrophryne > Species: Gastrophryne carolinensis

Engystoma carolinense Holbrook, 1835, Am. Herpetol. Descr. Rept. U.S.: unpaginated. Holotype: Frog figured on pl. 10, of the original publication. Type locality: not designated but given as "never been found north of Charleston [South Carolina]; its exact range extending westward to the Lower Mississippi. . . ", USA, by Holbrook, 1836, N. Am. Herpetol., 1: 83. Description by indication in a advertising brochure.

Engystoma carolinense Holbrook, 1836, N. Am. Herpetol., 1: 83. Type(s): Frog figured in pl. 11 (mislabelled 10) of the original publication; ANSP 1455-57 are syntypes according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 349. Type locality: "never been found north of Charleston [South Carolina]; its exact range extending westward to the Lower Mississippi. . . ", USA; data with syntypes is "South Carolina", USA; restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina", USA by Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 43.

Stenocephalus carolinensisTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 86.

Engystoma rugosum Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 744. Holotype: MNHNP 5032, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 62. Type locality: "parties meridonales de l'America du Nord"; restricted to "Nouvelle-Orleans" by, Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 62, who apparently was presenting collection data for the type; restricted to "vicinity of Charleston", South Carolina, USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 77, but this restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 381, on the basis of not being based on disclosed evidence. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 453-457.

Gastrophryne rugosumFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33.

Engystoma carolinenseBoulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 453; Strecker, 1909, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 22: 116.

Gastrophryne carolinensisStejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23: 166.

Gastrophryne carolinenseStrecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 46.

Engystoma carolinensisNieden, 1926, Das Tierreich, 49: 64.

Microhyla carolinensisParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 126.

Gastrophryne carolinensis carolinensisCarvalho, 1954, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 555: 13.

English Names

Chestnut-colored Frog (Yarrow, 1876, List Skeletons and Crania: 39). 

Carolina Tree Frog (Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 23).

Nebulous Toad (Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 396).

Toothless Frog  (Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 157).

Narrow-mouthed Toad (Dickerson, 1906, The Frog Book: 166; Brimley, 1915, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 30: 7; Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 68; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 77).

Carolina Narrow-mouthed Toad (Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi).

Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 334; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 9; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 5; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 15; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 11; Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 15). 

Eastern Narrowmouth Toad (Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 89; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 12; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 8).


Southeastern USA from southern Florida to eastern Maryland thence west to central Missouri, extreme southeastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and East to South Texas (Kleberg County); introduced on northwestern Puerto Rico, Grand Bahama I., Grand Cayman I., and possibly on New Providence I.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: United States of America, United States of America - Alabama, United States of America - Arkansas, United States of America - Florida, United States of America - Georgia, United States of America - Illinois, United States of America - Kansas, United States of America - Kentucky, United States of America - Louisiana, United States of America - Maryland, United States of America - Mississippi, United States of America - Missouri, United States of America - North Carolina, United States of America - Oklahoma, United States of America - South Carolina, United States of America - Tennessee, United States of America - Texas, United States of America - Virginia

Endemic: United States of America

Introduced: Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Puerto Rico


Reviewed by Nelson, 1972, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 120: 1–4; details of distribution in Nelson, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 125–128. Jacobs, 1973, HISS News J., 1: 98, provided the first record for Grand Bahama Island. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 299, discussed the introduced populations. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 95, summarized the natural history literature for the introduced Antillean populations. Mitchell and Lannoo, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 501–503, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 439–448, provided accounts that summarized the relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 276–279, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 217–218, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. See account of biology and life history in southern Florida by Meshaka and Lane, 2015, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 10 (Monogr. 5): 67–72. Walker, 2019, Herpetol. Rev., 50: 96, provided a record for Kleberg County, Texas, USA. Brais, 2022, Herpetol. Rev., 53: 71, provided a record from Morgan County, Tennessee, USA, extending the range onto the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, USA. Guyer and Bailey, 2023, Frogs and Toads of Alabama: 80–83, provided a detailed account for Alabama, USA. Bassett, 2023, Reptiles & Amphibians, 30(e18486): 1–18, provided an updated county distribution map for Texas, USA. 

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